The economy of Mozambique has developed since the end of the Mozambican Civil War (1977–1992). A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the country’s largest foreign investment project to date has increased export earnings. Additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing should further close the import/export gap.
The economy of Puerto Rico is classified as a high income economy by the World Bank and as the most competitive economy in Latin America by the World Economic Forum. The main drivers of Puerto Rico’s economy are manufacturing, primarily pharmaceuticals, textiles, petrochemicals, and electronics; followed by the service industry, notably finance, insurance, real estate, and tourism.
The economy of Brunei, a small and wealthy country, is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village traditions. It is almost entirely supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for over half of GDP. Per capita GDP is high, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.
Oman is a rural, agricultural country, and fishing and overseas trading are important to the coastal populations. Oil in commercial quantities was discovered in Oman in 1964 and was first exported in 1967. Subsequently the production and export of petroleum rapidly came to dominate the country’s economy. Oil revenues represent roughly two-fifths of gross domestic product (GDP) and about three-fourths of the government’s income.
The economy of Macau has remained one of the most open in the world since its handover to China in 1999. Apparel exports and gambling-related tourism are mainstays of the economy. The Hong Kong dollar is itself a reserve currency for the Macanese pataca, which is pegged at the official rate of around 1 Hong Kong dollar to 1.03 Macanese pataca. In 2020, because of the COVID-19 pandemic, Macau has seen a massive decline of the economy, as it collapsed by 50%, nearly destroying the economy.
The economy of Cuba is a largely planned economy dominated by state-run enterprises. The government of Cuba owns and operates most industries and most of the labor force is employed by the state. In 2019, Cuba ranked 70th out of 189 countries, with a Human Development Index of 0.783, placed in the high human development category. Housing and transportation costs are low. Cubans receive government-subsidized education, healthcare, and food subsidies.
The economy of Malta is a highly industrialized, service-based economy. It is classified as an advanced economy by the International Monetary Fund[ and is considered a high-income country by the World Bank and an innovation-driven economy by the World Economic Forum. It is a member of the European Union and of the eurozone, having formally adopted the euro on 1 January 2008.
The economy of Saudi Arabia is one of the top twenty economies in the world, and the largest economy in the Arab world and the Middle East. Saudi Arabia is part of the G20 group of countries. With a total worth of $34.4 trillion, Saudi Arabia has the second most valuable natural resources in the world. The country has the second-largest proven petroleum reserves, and is the largest exporter of petroleum in the world. It also has the fifth-largest proven natural gas reserves and is considered an “Energy Superpower”.
The economy of Finland is a highly industrialized, mixed economy with a per capita output similar to that of other western European economies such as France, Germany and the United Kingdom. Finland is highly integrated in the global economy, and international trade is a third of GDP. The European Union makes 60 percent of the total trade. The largest trade flows are with Germany, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, Netherlands and China.
The economy of Botswana is currently one of the world’s fastest growing economies, averaging about 5% per annum over the past decade. Botswana has been praised by the African Development Bank for sustaining one of the world’s longest economic booms. The government has consistently maintained budget surpluses and has extensive foreign-exchange reserves.