From new coronavirus to respiratory infection

Dr. Long Chelsea98.comHuizhou Education_One Million Dragon's Great Health

Hui Zhou editor summary: This blog shows the knowledge of the original author, Dr. Long. Starting from the introduction of the respiratory tract, a concise classification and explanation of respiratory tract infections, such as the current epidemic of new coronaviruses, influenza that is seen every year, as well as asthma, pneumonia, etc., according to the different levels of harm caused by each sub-category, the young and the weak How to prevent, and make a professional comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of various Chinese and Western medicine and multiple alternatives. There are many dry goods and it is worth forwarding.

The respiratory tract is the passage through which the airflow passes when the lungs breathe. The respiratory tract is divided into upper and lower parts: the nose, pharynx, and larynx are collectively called the upper respiratory tract. The airway below the larynx is the lower respiratory tract, including the trachea, bronchi and lung organs, or called the tracheal tree. Diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms invading the respiratory tract and reproducing are called respiratory infections. According to its location, it is divided into upper respiratory tract infection and lower respiratory tract infection.

From new coronavirus to respiratory infection

1, Upper respiratory tract infection (URIorURTI):

It is referred to as Shanggan, also known as the common cold (commonly known as cold), which includes the general term for acute inflammation of the nasal cavity, pharynx or throat. In a broad sense, Shanggan is not a diagnosis of a disease, but a group of diseases, including the common cold, viral pharyngitis, laryngitis, herpes angina, pharyngeal conjunctival fever, and bacterial pharyngeal-tonsillitis. The clinically diagnosed "acute tonsillitis", "acute pharyngitis", and "acute nasopharyngitis" all belong to the upper sense.

Upper respiratory tract infections are classified as viral (70-80%),Bacterial (accounting for 20-25%); bacterial or fungal infections often secondary to viral infections; viruses include rhinovirus, coronavirus, and adenovirus (more than 100 viruses are related to the cause of the common cold, among which rhinovirus is the most common); Streptococcus is the main bacteria, such as acute tonsillitis, acute pharyngitis or laryngitis caused by group A streptococcus hemolyticus. The disease can occur in four seasons and at any age, and it is spread through virus-containing droplets, mist, or contaminated equipment. Often when the body's resistance is reduced, such as cold, fatigue, rain, etc., viruses or/and bacteria that existed or invaded from the outside world quickly grow and multiply, leading to infection.

From new coronavirus to respiratory infection

Upper respiratory tract infection is a common disease. Children under 4-5 years of age can catch colds 4-6 times a year on average. Usually, after a week of rest and treatment, 90% of the children can recover. The disease has a good prognosis, self-limiting, and usually recovers in 5-7 days. Symptoms are mainly nasal symptoms, such as sneezing, nasal congestion, and watery nose. A few have symptoms such as fatigue and low fever. Often secondary to bronchitis, pneumonia, paranasal sinusitis, a small number of people can be complicated by acute myocarditis, nephritis, rheumatic fever and so on.

Influenza, or flu for short, although the name sounds very similar to a cold, and some symptoms are similar, in fact, it has nothing to do with the common cold. It is an infectious disease caused by influenza virus, which can affect the upper respiratory tract + lower respiratory tract. Influenza may have some respiratory symptoms (especially pneumonia), but more systemic manifestations such as "fever, headache, and muscle pain".

2, Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTorLRTI):

Including acute bronchitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, can be caused by infection, physical and chemical, allergies and other factors, manifested as fever, cough, sputum, etc.

Symptoms: fever, cough, shortness of breath, expectoration, etc.

Caused by infection, physical and chemical, allergies and other factors. Clinically, there are more and more antibiotics to choose from, and drug-resistant strains are also increasing. Due to the application of high-dose cephalosporins, nosocomial infections, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus infections, are increasing. Whether it is a lower respiratory tract infection or an upper respiratory tract infection, most of it is caused by a virus, which is called a viral respiratory infection.

From new coronavirus to respiratory infection

*About asthma

Asthma refers to bronchial asthma. Although it and asthmatic bronchitis both have asthma symptoms, they are two diseases. Wheezing bronchitis is caused by respiratory infections that cause bronchial wall inflammation, mucosal congestion and edema, and muscle spasm in the tube wall, which makes the respiratory tract relatively narrow and produces wheezing. It often manifests as fever, cough and asthma; bronchial asthma is an inflammation, but It is chronic airway inflammation, which is characterized by chronic airway inflammation involving a variety of cells (such as eosinophils, mast cells, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, airway epithelial cells, etc.) and cellular components This kind of chronic inflammation is related to airway hyperresponsiveness, which usually presents extensive and variable reversible expiratory airflow limitation, resulting in recurrent symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and/or cough , The intensity changes with time. It usually occurs at night and (or) early in the morning and worsens, and most patients can relieve themselves or after treatment. If bronchial asthma is not diagnosed and treated in time, it can cause irreversible airway narrowing and airway remodeling with the extension of the disease course.

How is childhood asthma diagnosed?

Childhood asthma is one of the most common respiratory diseases that seriously affect the physical and mental health of children. In recent years, the prevalence and mortality of childhood asthma have increased. In 1990, the prevalence of asthma among children aged 0-14 in China was 0.91%, and in 2000 it had risen to 1.5%. This figure means that there are more than 10 million children with asthma in China. Primary examinations: spirometry, spirometry assessment of disease response to bronchodilators, chest X-ray examination (CXR), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), airway provocation test, exercise provocation test , Complete blood count (FBC), etc.

*About pneumonia

Pneumonia is an acute respiratory infection of the lungs. There are many reasons for it, including bacteria, viruses or fungi in the air. Pneumonia is contagious and can be spread through airborne particles (coughing or sneezing). It can also be spread through other fluids, such as blood during childbirth, or from contaminated surfaces. When children are infected with pneumonia, their lungs will fill with fluid, causing breathing difficulties. Children with immature immune systems (such as newborns) or weakened immune systems (such as malnutrition or HIV infection) are more likely to contract pneumonia. The most common symptoms include cough, difficulty breathing, and fever. Children with pneumonia are usually short of breath, or when they breathe in, their lower chest may be adducted or contracted (the chest will expand when a healthy person breathes in).

How is childhood pneumonia diagnosed?

Pneumonia can be diagnosed through a physical examination, including checking the child’s breathing for abnormalities and auscultating the child’s lungs. Sometimes, they also use chest X-rays or blood tests to diagnose. In countries with inadequate health systems (ie, shortage of doctors, lack of chest X-ray facilities and laboratories), health workers usually count children’s breaths per minute to diagnose pneumonia. For example, a five-month-old child breathing 50 times per minute is considered to be breathing too fast and may suffer from pneumonia. Judging whether a child is "breathing too fast" is based on age: younger children usually have a higher breathing rate than older children.

3, Repeated respiratory infections:

According to the potential causes of age and different locations, repeated respiratory tract infections can be divided into repeated upper respiratory tract infections and repeated lower respiratory tract infections, or can be divided into repeated bronchitis and repeated pneumonia. Recurrent respiratory infection is a common disease in pediatrics, with an incidence of about 20%. Refers to respiratory tract infections in which the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection or lower respiratory tract infection is frequent and exceeds a certain range within 1 year. Different age diagnosis standards are different, repeated upper respiratory tract infections are more than 7 times per year for infants and children under 2 years old, more than 6 times per year for children aged 3-5, and more than 5 times per year for children over 6 years old; repeated lower respiratory tract infections are under 2 years old Infants and young children more than 3 times/year, 3-5 years old children more than 2 times/year, and children over 6 years old more than 2 times/year can be diagnosed with repeated respiratory infections.

For example, children aged 0-2 years have repeated upper respiratory tract infections 7 times a year, and repeated lower respiratory tract infections include repeated bronchitis 3 times and repeated pneumonia 2 times. It should be reminded that there should be at least 7 days between two infections.

If the recurrent infection is mainly the lower respiratory tract, it is defined as recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, and the determination of the number requires continuous observation for one year. Recurrent pneumonia refers to repeated pneumonia more than or equal to two times within a year. Pneumonia needs to be confirmed by lung signs and imaging. During the diagnosis of two pneumonia, the signs and imaging changes should disappear completely.

4, Acute respiratory infection:

Viral infections are acute respiratory infections caused by multiple viruses. Divided into acute upper respiratory tract infection (AURI) and acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI). The former manifested as common cold, acute pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and laryngitis, while the latter manifested as tracheal-bronchitis and pneumonia. The incidence of this type of disease is high, and the population is generally susceptible to infection. Children, the elderly, malnourished and chronically ill people are more susceptible to the disease, with more incidences in winter and spring. The common ones are as follows:

(1) Acute viral pharyngitis or laryngitis

* Acute viral pharyngitis: mostly caused by rhinovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, etc. The clinical features are itching or burning in the pharynx, coughing is rare, and sore throat is not obvious. When swallowing is painful, it often indicates a streptococcal infection. Influenza virus and adenovirus may cause fever and fatigue. Adenovirus pharyngitis can be accompanied by ocular conjunctivitis. On physical examination, the pharynx was obviously hyperemic and edema, and the submandibular lymph nodes were swollen and tender.

* Acute viral laryngitis: mostly caused by rhinovirus, influenza A virus, parainfluenza virus and adenovirus. The clinical features are hoarseness, difficulty speaking, pain when coughing, and often fever, sore throat or cough. On physical examination, throat edema, congestion, mild swelling and tenderness of local lymph nodes, and wheezing in the larynx can be heard.

(2) Acute herpetic angina

It is often caused by Coxsackie virus A, manifested by obvious sore throat and fever. The course of the disease is about 1 week. It is more common in children and occasionally in adults. Physical examination showed pharyngeal congestion, grayish white herpes and superficial ulcers on the soft palate, uvula, pharynx and tonsils, and blush around, which later formed herpes.

(3) Acute viral bronchitis

The clinical manifestations are cough, no sputum or mucus in sputum, accompanied by fever and fatigue. Other symptoms often include hoarseness and non-pleural substernal pain. You can hear dry or wet rales. Influenza virus or coronavirus acute bronchitis often occurs in acute attacks of chronic bronchitis.

(4) Pharyngeal Conjunctival Fever

Mainly caused by adenovirus, Coxsackie virus, etc. The clinical manifestations include fever, sore throat, photophobia, and tearing. Physical examination showed obvious hyperemia of the pharynx and conjunctiva. The course of the disease is 4-6 days. It usually occurs in summer. It is more common in children and easily spread by swimmers.

(5) Bacterial Pharyngealtonsillitis

Mostly caused by hemolytic streptococcus, followed by Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and staphylococcus. Acute onset, obvious sore throat, chills, fever (body temperature can reach above 39℃). Physical examination showed obvious congestion in the pharynx, enlarged and hyperemic tonsils, yellow purulent discharge on the surface, enlarged and tender submandibular lymph nodes, and no abnormal signs in the lungs.

The familiar Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), as well as the current new coronary pneumonia (NCP), are infectious pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory infections caused by coronavirus. As long as it is a severe respiratory infection, it can be called SARI. The full name of SARI is "severe acute respiratory infection", which is translated as "severe acute respiratory infection" in Chinese.

5, Seasonal flu

Seasonal influenza is an acute viral infection that is easily spread from person to person, and it spreads globally, and can infect people of any age group. Most people recover within a week without requiring medical attention. Common respiratory diseases associated with seasonal influenza that can cause death include pneumonia and bronchitis. In temperate regions, seasonal epidemics mainly occur in winter. In tropical areas, the seasonality of influenza is not obvious, and epidemics can occur throughout the year.

Seasonal influenza viruses are divided into four types: A, B, C, and D. Influenza A and B viruses can spread and cause seasonal epidemics. Seasonal flu is characterized by sudden high fever, cough (usually dry cough), headache, muscle and joint pain, severe physical discomfort (feeling unwell), sore throat and runny nose. The cough can be severe and can last for two or more weeks. Most people recover within a week, and the fever and other symptoms disappear without medical attention. But influenza can cause serious illness or death, especially in high-risk groups.

From new coronavirus to respiratory infection

The dangers of respiratory infections

1. The harm of influenza: Every year, influenza virus infection causes a large number of morbidity and deaths worldwide. It is estimated that influenza causes 290,000-650,000 respiratory deaths each year. In China, more than 88,000 people die from influenza every year, and more than 80% are people over 60. In the winter of 2017-2018, it is estimated that 80,00 Americans died of influenza and its complications, compared with 300 in Canada; during the 2019-2020 influenza season, the number of deaths in the United States exceeded 14,000. Because influenza is usually not serious, many people delay seeking treatment, and laboratory tests are lacking in many places, so many deaths caused by influenza virus infection have not been confirmed.

2. The harm of seasonal flu: the severity of the illness varies from mild to severe or even death. Hospitalizations and deaths mainly occur in high-risk groups. It is estimated that on a global scale, the influenza epidemic causes approximately 3 to 5 million severe cases and approximately 290,000 to 650,000 deaths related to respiratory diseases each year. In developed countries, most influenza-related deaths occur in people 65 years and older. Studies have shown that among children under 5 who died of lower respiratory tract infections caused by influenza, 99% were children in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest risk of death from influenza in the world, followed by the Eastern Mediterranean and Southeast Asia.

3. The harm of severe acute respiratory infections: just enumerate the data of 2019 new coronary pneumonia (NCP). As of December 2, 2020, the global death toll due to the new coronavirus has reached 1.48 million, and the number of global infections has exceeded 64 million. And there is no downward trend.

From new coronavirus to respiratory infection

aThe harm of upper respiratory tract infection

(1) Transformation into lower respiratory tract infection: When the pathogen spreads down the trachea and bronchi, it will develop into lower respiratory tract infection, namely bronchitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, etc. At this time, the coughing symptoms are aggravated and the phlegm is excessive. Expectation of expectoration, congestion in the trachea, coupled with lung tissue lesions, often manifested as shortness of breath, blue and fever around the mouth will often increase.

(2) Inducing conjunctivitis, sinusitis, stomatitis, laryngitis, otitis media, and cervical lymphadenitis: If the pathogen spreads to surrounding tissues through the nasolacrimal duct, eustachian tube, lymphatic tissue, etc., symptoms of corresponding complications will appear. Often cold symptoms do not disappear, conjunctival congestion, pain, increased secretions, or earache, external auditory canal discharge, headache, runny nose, mandibular or anterior neck lymph nodes swelling and pain. When these surrounding tissue lesions occur, appropriate treatment should be taken.

(3) Lead to sepsis: If pathogens, especially bacteria, enter the blood circulation, wherever they go may become a place for it to nourish and live, and bring various symptoms to the child, such as: reaching the pleural tissue and causing empyema ; It causes pericarditis when it reaches the pericardium. It can also cause peritonitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and even meningitis, which is sepsis. At this time, 2-3 kinds of high-dose antibiotics should be actively given in combination therapy, and there should be a sufficient course of treatment to effectively control the symptoms.

(4) Allergic diseases: As a result of a series of changes in the body after infection, allergic reactions may occur. Glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever, allergic purpura and other diseases may occur 2-3 weeks after catching a cold. But its mechanism is still under discussion. At present, it is believed that the antigens of pathogens are related to the antigenic characteristics of their own organs. The antibodies produced after pathogens invade the human body, which in turn act on their own organs.

bHarm of lower respiratory tract infection

Lower respiratory tract infections are still the deadliest infectious disease, causing 3 million deaths worldwide in 2016. Among them, the most serious is pneumonia, which is also the world's largest infectious disease killer for children. It kills more than 800,000 children under five years of age each year, including more than 153,000 newborns. This means that every 39 seconds a child dies of pneumonia, and these deaths are almost always avoidable. Recurrent lower respiratory tract infections can aggravate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure and other chronic diseases. In addition, the pneumonia hazards caused by coronaviruses such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), as well as the current new coronary pneumonia (NCP), will not be discussed.

From new coronavirus to respiratory infection

c, The harm of repeated respiratory infections

The incidence of recurrent respiratory infections is about 20%, and the incidence is still very high. Among all age groups, children and preschoolers are the most common, that is, the age group of 2-6 years old. It is especially prone in autumn and winter. Some children have to run to the hospital almost all autumn and winter, which is very painful. According to the World Health Organization, 4 to 5 million children aged 0-5 die from respiratory infections each year. Especially with repeated respiratory tract infections, children have a fever and cough twice in three days, which not only affects healthy development, but also complicates serious diseases such as myocarditis, rheumatic fever, acute nephritis, sepsis, empyema, and meningitis, which can endanger life.

d, The harm of asthma

Although asthma is not a respiratory tract infection, its fatality rate is not as high as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or other chronic diseases, but improper medication or failure to adhere to treatment can cause death. Almost 30,000 people die of asthma every year worldwide. There are currently approximately 30 million asthmatics in China. The number of asthma patients in the United States is approximately 25.5 million, of which 18.7 million are adults, with an incidence of 8%; and 6.8 million children, with an incidence of 9.3 to %. Studies have shown that the experience of microbial exposure is closely related to childhood asthma, and this exposure can explain the phenomenon of lower asthma in children growing on the farm.

On May 8, 1995, Ms. Deng passed away in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It is speculated that the direct cause of death was an acute attack of asthma, but the life-saving drugs (bronchodilators) were not brought around, which led to tragedy. Passed away in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It is speculated that the direct cause of death was an acute attack of asthma, but the life-saving drugs (bronchodilators) were not brought around, which led to tragedy. In 1994, WHO organized more than 30 experts around the world to formulate the "Global Initiative for Asthma Prevention and Control" (GINA), which was revised in 1998 and 2002. In 1993, the Chinese Pediatric Respiratory Group formulated China's "Childhood Asthma Prevention and Control Routine" and revised it in 1998. Now refer to the 2002 new GINA plan and revise it again in light of China's national conditions. On December 11, 1998, on the opening day of the Second World Asthma Conference in Barcelona, Spain, the Global Asthma Prevention Committee and the European Respiratory Society proposed to carry out World Asthma Day activities on behalf of the World Health Organization. A World Asthma Day. Since 2000, related events have been held every year, but since then World Asthma Day has been changed to the first Tuesday of May every year instead of December 11.

e, The harm of pneumonia

(1) Child pneumonia: Acute respiratory diseases such as pneumonia are the single most important cause of death in children under five. According to WHO estimates, among children younger than 5 years old, there are approximately 156 million cases of pneumonia each year in the world, of which up to 20 million children are in serious condition and require hospitalization. It is estimated that in developed countries, the annual incidence of pneumonia in children under 5 is 33/10,000, and the annual incidence of pneumonia in children aged 0-16 is 14.5/10,000. Community-acquired pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia, Approximately half of children with CAP require hospitalization. In the United States, since the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was included in the children’s routine immunization program in 2000, the hospitalization rate for pneumonia (all causes) among children under 2 years of age has declined, from 12-14 cases per 1,000 people to 8-10 cases /1000 people.

The mortality rate of childhood pneumonia in developed countries is low (<1/1000 per year). In developing countries, respiratory infections are more common and more serious. Worldwide, in 2015, among children 19 years of age or younger, LRTI caused nearly 800,000 deaths (31.1 cases/100,000 people), second only to neonatal/premature birth complications.

Children who die of pneumonia are mainly concentrated in the poorest countries in the world. Among these countries, it is the poorest and most marginalized children who suffer the most. They often have limited or no access to basic health services, and they are more likely to suffer from other health threats such as malnutrition, infectious diseases and air pollution. They often live in fragile or need humanitarian environments, where risk factors often increase and the health system collapses.

(2) Pneumonia in ordinary people: Approximately 450 million people worldwide (7% of the global population) suffer from pneumonia every year, and about 4 million people die from it every year. Pneumonia was regarded as the "Death Commander" by William Osler, the father of modern clinical medicine, born in Ontario, Canada, graduated from the University of Toronto School of Medicine, and 19th century British doctor William Osler. In the 20th century, the invention of antibodies and vaccines improved the survival rate of pneumonia. However, pneumonia is still one of the main causes of death among residents in developing countries, the elderly, the young, and patients with chronic diseases.

(3)Pneumonia in the elderly: Because pneumonia often shortens the suffering of dying people, it is called "friends of the elderly". Winter is also a frequent season for elderly pneumonia. The immune function of the elderly is relatively weakened, such as upper respiratory tract infection or influenza, it is easy to cause pneumonia; the elderly suffer from many diabetes and malignant tumors, and their immune function is weakened, and they are also prone to pneumonia; the elderly are caused by cerebrovascular accidents, trauma, and aging Long-term bed rest is prone to aspiration pneumonia and falling pneumonia. It should be understood that although a variety of new antibacterial drugs are constantly available, the proportion of elderly people who die of pneumonia is still high, and pneumonia is often the direct cause of death for the elderly. Most of them are related to the original multiple chronic underlying diseases. Common complications include shock, severe sepsis or sepsis, arrhythmia, water and electrolyte imbalance and acid-base imbalance, respiratory failure, heart failure and multiple organ failure, which have become an important cause of death from elderly pneumonia.

United States Statistics 1921-193044684 that happened in yearCases of pneumonia, 80The incidence of pneumonia in patients over the age of about 205 years old patientTimes, and the death rate is almost 100Times. There were 100,000 cases of nosocomial infections in American hospitals from 1986 to 1990. Patients over 65 years old accounted for 54%, of which pneumonia accounted for 18%.Pneumonia is the most common infection that causes death in the elderly. Chinese Zhu Junren counted 8,947 deaths caused by autopsy in the elderly, and pneumonia was the 3rd in the 1950s to the 7th in the 1970s. The reasons for the high incidence and mortality of elderly pneumonia are objectively due to the aging of the body, the changes in the anatomy and function of the respiratory system, which lead to the reduction of the defense and immune function of the whole body and the respiratory tract, the weakening of the functional reserve of various important organs or the suffering of multiple chronic diseases Serious illness.

f,Coronavirus disease(NCP) The harm of sequelae

(1)Lung injury: It has been mentioned in previous news reports that after treatment for patients with new coronary pneumonia, the lungs of some more severely ill patients will also suffer varying degrees of damage, such as apical fibrosis. This is mainly a trace of excessive repair of the lung apex, and the patient's gas exchange capacity is also impaired. The lung has a very powerful repair ability, and most patients can repair it on their own. However, for patients with severe fibrosis, the repair process is also relatively long and may last for several years.

(2)Heart injury: According to a case study published in JAMA magazine, patients with new coronary pneumonia up to 16.7% suffer from arrhythmia. In our human heart, the sinoatrial node is the "commander" of our heart's electrical conduction, while the atrioventricular node is a very important transportation hub. When the two are attacked by the new concept pneumonia virus, it is easy to cause traffic obstacles in the heart pathway, which is what we just said arrhythmia.

(3)Brain damage: Studies have shown that after recovery from the new coronavirus, patients with about 36.4% will have neurological symptoms, such as stroke, decreased vision, and abnormal smell. It can be seen that the damage to the brain by the new coronavirus is also very large.

From new coronavirus to respiratory infection

Prevention of respiratory infections

1, General preventive measures in daily life

(1) October 15th "Global Handwashing Day": Wash your hands correctly (seven-step handwashing method), wash your hands frequently, and "wash your hands before meals and after going out" (you can carry a no-wash alcohol-based hand sanitizer when you go out); If there is a wound, it must be disinfected to protect the injured part;

(2) Avoid contact with people with pathogens, especially when visiting patients in hospitals;

(3) When sneezing or coughing, use a tissue or elbow to block it to prevent the "decimal point" from polluting your hands that like touching your face, touching your nose, and holding food;

(4) Do not smoke or smoke second-hand smoke, and do not stay for a long time in places with poor air quality and densely populated places to prevent infection;

(5) Avoid exposure to cold, rain, and excessive fatigue; avoid contact with cold patients, and avoid contact with mouth, eyes, and nose with dirty hands;

(6) Elderly, frail and susceptible persons should pay more attention to protection, wear masks when respiratory infections are prevalent, and avoid entering and exiting in crowded public places;

(7) Adhere to the lunch break if possible, adequate sleep can ensure the recovery of mental and physical strength, and at the same time ensure the improvement of immunity;

(8) Adhere to moderate and regular outdoor exercises and improve the body’s immunity and cold tolerance are the main methods to prevent liver disease;

(9) Keep indoor air fresh and strengthen indoor ventilation; use air filters and humidifiers as much as possible at home, and wear masks to clean home appliances frequently;

(10) The climate is dry in winter, and the human body is prone to lack of water. Drinking boiled water often can not only ensure the body's needs, but also have the effect of diuresis, detoxification and elimination of waste;

(11) Except for influenza viruses, there is no vaccine against other respiratory viruses; however, influenza vaccines cannot prevent all influenza virus subtypes.

2, Prevention of respiratory infections in children

(1) Strengthen physical exercise, go to outdoor activities, breathe fresh air, strengthen blood circulation, and improve the body's ability to keep out the cold. Some parents are afraid that their children will stay in the house when the weather is cold. The child’s respiratory tract has not been stimulated by the outside air for a long time, and cannot get cold-resistant exercise. After the weather is warm, or after contact with sick people, it is easy to get sick due to poor resistance.

(2) The nutritional intake is comprehensive and balanced, the meat and vegetables are reasonably matched, eat more fresh fruits and vegetables, not a partial eclipse; eat less snacks, desserts and puffed food, do not eat refrigerated drinks, drink more boiled water.

(3) The room should maintain proper humidity and temperature; keep the indoor air fresh, open windows regularly for ventilation, and maintain air circulation.

(4) When the climate changes, it is necessary to increase or decrease clothes appropriately. Generally, it is enough to wear one more than adults. If the child sweats during activities, dry it with a towel in time; for children who sweat a lot after falling asleep, put a small towel on the front and rear chest to prevent sweaty underwear; reducing sweating and wiping sweat in time are important measures to prevent children from getting cold.

(5) Pay attention to the warmth of the feet: The feet are the ends of the limbs, and the blood circulation is poor. If the feet are cold, it will reflect the changes in the upper respiratory tract mucosa such as the nose, pharynx, and trachea, which will reduce the ability to resist pathogenic microorganisms and hide in the body. The pathogenic bacteria will grow and reproduce in large numbers; before going to bed, use 40 ℃ hot water to soak the feet of the child and massage the Yongquan acupoint, which is of great benefit to preventing respiratory infections.

(6) Ensure adequate sleep: The peak of growth hormone secretion in the child's body is at night when sleeping deeply. If sleep is not enough or irregular work and rest, it can lead to a decrease in growth hormone secretion, which not only affects height and healthy development, but also reduces resistance.

(7) Avoid contact with the source of the child's disease: try not to take the child to crowded public places, and do not let the child play with patients with respiratory infections; if someone in the family has a cold, try to minimize the contact between the patient and the child.

(8) Turn on the sodium absorbing and relaxing salt sol generator (indoor sterilization rate is above 96%), which can not only effectively remove dust, smoke, bacteria and other odors carried in the indoor air, but also create a clean and healthy breathing environment for children. It can relieve nasal congestion, runny nose, cough, sore throat and other cold symptoms. Long-term use will help improve the local defense function of the respiratory tract, enhance the body's immunity, and improve children's resistance to colds and other respiratory diseases.

(9) Children who are already sick should pay attention to bed rest, and take appropriate activities after the symptoms are relieved; choose light and digestible foods, such as vegetable soup, millet porridge, pumpkin porridge, etc.

(10) When the body temperature is high, drink plenty of warm water, and don't "cover sweat" when you have a fever; at night, the child's body temperature may rise suddenly, so it is necessary to strengthen body temperature monitoring to prevent high temperature convulsions.

3, Prevention of flu and seasonal flu

(1) Influenza vaccination is the most effective method of prevention; safe and effective vaccines have existed and used for more than 60 years; the immunity of vaccination gradually weakened over time, so it is recommended to receive influenza vaccination every year; in the world the most commonly used is injection Inactivated influenza vaccine. The flu vaccine can not only achieve the preventive effect of 50% to 70%, but also help reduce the severity of symptoms. Antibodies are produced about 2 weeks after vaccination, and the immune effect can be maintained for about one year. In China, influenza vaccine is not included in the national immunization plan. In the past 15 years, influenza vaccine coverage has gradually increased, but it has only covered about 2% of the population. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), vaccine manufacturers will produce 194 million to 198 million doses of influenza vaccine for 330 million Americans in 2020, an increase of 11% from 175 million doses last year. In Canada, from mid-October to mid-December, a free vaccine program is implemented nationwide, and some clinics will continue to provide it until spring 2021. Public health centers, family doctors, Walk-in clinics, pharmacies (Shoppers, Rexall, Walmart, Costco, etc.) all provide vaccinations. It should be noted that children under 5 years old (under 7 years old in Manitoba) cannot get the flu vaccine at the pharmacy and need to go to the hospital, family doctor or pediatrician to get the vaccine.

In healthy adults, influenza vaccine can provide protection even if the epidemic virus does not exactly match the vaccine virus. In the elderly, the flu vaccine may be less effective in preventing diseases, but it can reduce the severity of the illness and reduce the incidence of complications and death. Vaccination is especially important for people at high risk of flu complications and those who live with or care for them.

WHO recommends vaccinating the following people every year:

* Pregnant women at all stages of pregnancy

* Children from 6 months to 5 years old

* Seniors over 65

* Patients with chronic diseases

* Health workers

Influenza vaccines with a good match between the virus contained in the vaccine and the epidemic virus are the most effective. Due to the constantly changing characteristics of influenza viruses, the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (ie, the network of national influenza centers and WHO collaborating centers around the world) continuously monitors influenza viruses circulating in humans and updates influenza every six months Vaccine combination.

(2) Antiviral drugs can be used for pre-exposure or post-exposure prevention, but their use depends on many factors, such as individual factors, type of exposure, and exposure-related risks.

(3) In addition to vaccination and antiviral treatment, public health management also includes personal protective measures, such as:

* Wash your hands frequently and dry your hands

* Good respiratory hygiene, cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, use tissues, and dispose of tissues properly after use

* Self-quarantine as soon as possible when you feel unwell, have a fever and other flu symptoms

* Avoid close contact with patients

* Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth

4, Asthma prevention

Preventive measures include: avoiding predisposing factors, avoiding allergic substances; paying attention to diet, promoting healthy protein and healthy fat; strengthening physical exercise and improving immunity;

Measures to prevent aggravation of symptoms include: safe outdoor activities, healthy diet, weight control of children with asthma, correct medication for children with asthma, and correct use of inhalers; some risk factors include: allergen sensitization, atopic diseases , Wheezing induced by non-viral/non-allergic environmental factors, early respiratory viral infections, etc. It can be seen that respiratory virus infection may cause asthma; in turn, asthma will also reduce human immunity.

5, Prevention of pneumonia

(1) To prevent pneumonia, we must first strengthen protective measures, such as proper nutrition, reducing air pollution (which makes the lungs more susceptible to infection) and other risk factors, and developing good hygiene habits. Studies have shown that washing hands with soap can reduce the chance of contact with bacteria and reduce the risk of pneumonia by 50%. Studies have shown that washing hands with soap can reduce the risk of pneumonia by 50%.

(2) Pneumonia caused by bacteria is easy to prevent with vaccines. However, in 2018, 71 million children worldwide did not receive the recommended three doses of the basic pneumonia vaccine (PCV). Currently, a new vaccine against one of the main viruses causing pneumonia is under development.

(3) About 50% of childhood pneumonia deaths are related to air pollution. Air pollution greatly increases the risk of respiratory infections, including pneumonia. About half of childhood pneumonia deaths are related to air pollution. Outdoor air pollution is a big risk for children, especially in countries with high cases of pneumonia, as urbanization accelerates. However, indoor air pollution caused by unclean cooking and heating fuels poses a greater threat to the world. Among the deaths of childhood pneumonia related to air pollution, indoor air pollution accounted for 62%.

(4) The countermeasures to prevent pneumonia are to reduce risk factors, protect children’s immune systems, and ensure that all children can enjoy free quality health services provided by well-trained and well-equipped health workers. If newborns and young children receive early breastfeeding, vaccinations, get clean drinking water, get good nutrition, and reduce exposure to air pollution, pneumonia may be prevented.

(5) The characteristics of elderly pneumonia include: insidious onset, atypical symptoms, non-specific signs, and many complications. Therefore, it is easy to be ignored or considered to be a disease of the elderly, which is very dangerous. The elderly need to strengthen the repair of their own immunity, relieve and improve the original chronic underlying diseases as soon as possible,

Main treatment options for respiratory infections&Comparison of advantages and disadvantages

From new coronavirus to respiratory infection

1,Symptomatic treatment

(1) Rest: People who are seriously ill or old and infirm should rest in bed, avoid smoking, drink more water, and keep air circulation indoors.

(2) Antipyretic and analgesic: If you have fever, headache, muscle aches and other symptoms, you can choose antipyretic analgesics, such as compound aspirin, acetaminophen, indomethacin (indomethacin), pain relief tablets, Ibuprofen and others. Sore throat can be taken orally with various throat tablets such as lysozyme tablets, Jianmin throat tablets, or Chinese medicine Liushen pills.

(3) Decongestants: For nasal congestion, nasal mucosa congestion and edema, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride can be used, or 1% ephedrine can be used for nasal drops.

(4) Antihistamines: In colds, there are often increased sensitivity of the nasal mucosa, frequent sneezing, and runny nose. Antihistamines such as chlorpheniramine maleate or diphenhydramine can be used.

(5) Antitussives: For those with obvious cough symptoms, dextromethorphan, pentovirin and other antitussives can be given.

(6) Simple cold: In the absence of other bacterial infections (such as acute suppurative otitis media, bacterial pneumonia, etc.), antibiotic treatment is not required.

2, Etiological treatment

(1) Antibacterial treatment: Simple viral infections do not require the use of antibacterial drugs. When there is evidence of bacterial infection such as increased white blood cell count, pharynx moss, yellow sputum, penicillin, first-generation cephalosporins, and macrocyclics can be used as appropriate. Esters or quinolones. It is rarely necessary to select sensitive antibacterial drugs based on pathogens.

What needs to be reminded is that no matter it is antibiotics, it has no effect on viral infections. In addition, the abuse of antibiotics can also cause drug resistance, prompting the appearance of "super bacteria" that most antibiotics cannot kill. It is difficult to distinguish bacterial or viral infections from symptoms alone. There is evidence of bacterial infections such as elevated white blood cells, pharynx moss, yellow sputum, and runny nose. Antibiotics can be selected based on local epidemiological history and experience.

(2) Antiviral drug treatment: There is no specific antiviral drug, and the abuse of antiviral drugs can cause influenza virus resistance. Therefore, if there is no fever, the immune function is normal, and the patients with onset of more than two days generally do not need to apply. Patients with immunodeficiency can be used routinely early. The broad-spectrum antiviral drugs ribavirin and oseltamivir have a strong inhibitory effect on influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus, and can shorten the course of the disease.

3, Uncomplicated seasonal flu

Symptomatic treatment should be given to patients who are not in high-risk groups. After the patient develops symptoms, it is recommended to stay at home and minimize contact with others to avoid infection. The focus of treatment is to relieve flu symptoms such as fever. Patients should observe whether their condition has deteriorated and seek medical services. In addition to symptomatic treatment, antiviral treatment should be carried out as soon as possible for high-risk patients with known serious or complex diseases. Patients with severe or progressive clinical diseases such as suspected or confirmed influenza (ie, clinical syndrome of pneumonia, sepsis, or exacerbation of chronic disease) should be treated with antiviral drugs as soon as possible. Neuraminidase inhibitors (ie, oseltamivir) should be used as soon as possible (ideally within 48 hours after the onset of symptoms) to increase the therapeutic effect. Drug therapy should also be considered for patients in the later stages of the disease. It is recommended that the treatment last at least 5 days, but it can be extended until the clinical symptoms improve.

Unless for other reasons (such as asthma and other specific conditions), corticosteroids should not be routinely used because they can lead to prolonged virus clearance and immunosuppression can lead to double infections with bacteria or fungi. All currently circulating influenza viruses are resistant to adamantane antiviral drugs (such as amantadine and rimantadine), so it is not recommended to use these drugs for monotherapy. The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System monitors pandemic influenza virus resistance to antiviral drugs, and provides timely guidance on the use of antiviral drugs for clinical management and potential drug prevention.

4, Lower respiratory tract infection

(1) Quinolone antibiotics;

(2) A new generation of quinolones;

(3) β-lactam antibiotics;

(4) Macrolide antibiotics;

(5) Aminoglycoside antibiotics.

5, Repeated respiratory infections

The purpose of clinical treatment is to reduce the number of respiratory infections.

(1) Pathogenic treatment: The most common cause of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections during the infection period is the invasion of pathogens, the most common being viruses, bacteria and atypical pathogenic microorganisms. Anti-infective treatment for etiology is conventional treatment.

(2) Immunomodulator treatment: The use of immunomodulators can enhance the immune function of the respiratory tract and effectively reduce the frequency of repeated respiratory infections and the use of antibacterial drugs.

6, Treatment options for asthma

(1) Principle of treatment: Anti-allergic inflammation treatment should be as early as possible. The principles of long-term, continuous, standardized, and individualized treatment must be adhered to. Treatment includes:

* Rapid relief of symptoms during attack: anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic;

* Remission period to prevent symptoms from worsening or recurring: anti-inflammatory, reducing airway hyperresponsiveness, preventing airway remodeling, avoiding triggers, and doing self-management.

(2) Treatment plan: There are two methods for children with allergic rhinitis: one is to avoid allergens, and the other is sublingual immunodesensitization treatment.

(3) Traditional therapy: This is a relatively common method of treatment for children with asthma. However, this treatment method is relatively simple, and the drug is also fixed, which causes certain limitations. Not only did the disease not be cured, but because of the side effects of the drug, the patient became dependent on the drug.

(4) Treatment due to illness is one of the best treatments for childhood asthma. If you want to treat this disease well, you must treat it according to the patient's condition and the cause of the disease, and "tailor-made" a set of individualized treatment methods.

(5) Traditional Chinese medicine method: magnetic medicine superimposed to regulate immune method, through the theory of syndrome differentiation, not a single traditional Chinese medicine treatment, according to the patient's physical characteristics and symptoms, it is suitable for each person, and different acupoints and prescriptions are selected according to the syndrome Different treatments are mainly combined with acupuncture, cupping, fumigation, and Chinese medicine application.

(6) Combination of Chinese and Western medicine: Among the best treatment methods for childhood asthma, BA-Bio Asthma Immunotherapy is a more commonly used method. The treatment method is to use immune regulation and balance therapy to achieve the purpose of treatment by combining Chinese and Western medicine, and through the perfect combination of Chinese and Western medicine.

(7) Negative ion therapy: Breathe more fresh air: Clinical studies have found that small particle size negative oxygen ions have a good effect on improving the secretion function of the alveoli and the ventilation and ventilation function of the lung, which is beneficial to the treatment and maintenance of patients with emphysema. Due to the high activity of ecological negative ions, they can directly act on the cilia movement of the tracheal mucosal epithelium, affect the activity of respiratory enzymes in the epithelial villi, improve the secretion function of the alveoli, and the ventilation and ventilation function of the lungs, thereby increasing vital capacity, adjusting respiratory frequency, and calming down Cough and other effects, reduce lung damage.

7, The general treatment plan for pneumonia

The treatment of pneumonia depends on its type. For outpatient treatment of mild pneumonia, oral medication is the first choice. If it is caused by a virus, use symptomatic medication, or use antiviral drugs as prescribed by a doctor, and it will usually be cured in about 2 weeks. Bacterial or mycoplasma pneumonia, take antibiotics as directed by your doctor. If the effect of regular medication is not good within 2-3 days, you should actively consult your doctor. Severe pneumonia should be actively treated with doctors.Remember: do not infusion when taking medicine to avoid over-treatment. Do not blindly refuse the infusion to avoid delaying the disease.

Usually oral antibiotics, adequate rest, simple pain relief, and hydration can completely relieve symptoms. However, people with special physical conditions, the elderly, or those with severe breathing difficulties may require further treatment. If symptoms worsen, and home treatment does not improve, or even complications, they must be hospitalized.

Commonly used immune enhancers: Levamisole, interleukin, interferon, transfer factor, thymosin, etc.

Around 7-131 TP1T children suffering from pneumonia in the world need to be hospitalized. In developed countries, adults with community pneumonia will be hospitalized from 22% to 42%. The CURB-65 score can be used to determine whether adult patients with pneumonia need to be hospitalized. If the score is 0 or 1, they can generally recuperate at home. If the score is 2, they can be hospitalized for a short time or do not need to be hospitalized, but close follow-up is required Follow-up pathology, if the score reaches 3 points or higher, hospitalization is generally recommended. If the child has symptoms of dyspnea, or the blood oxygen saturation is lower than 90%, he also needs to be hospitalized. The use of Chest physiotherapy for pneumonia has not been confirmed. For patients who have entered the intensive care unit, non-invasive forced ventilation (Mechanical ventilation) may help the patient. The cough syrup available in pharmacies has not yet found an effect on pneumonia, and zinc supplementation for children has little effect. The evidence on Mucolytics is not sufficient.

(1) Bacterial pneumonia: It can be treated with antibiotics. The choice of drugs is related to the age, health, and location of the infected person. In the United Kingdom, the first-line drug of choice for community-acquired pneuminia (Empiric treatment) will use amoxicillin, and doxycycline or clarithromycin can also be used instead. In North America, where "atypical" community pneumonia is more prevalent, adults are recommended to choose macrolides (such as azithromycin or erythromycin) and doxycycline instead of the aforementioned amoxicillin. But in children with milder symptoms, amoxicillin with fewer side effects is still the drug of choice. Quinolone is not recommended for patients with simple symptoms, because of its large side effects and no special effect on the treatment of pneumonia. If abused, it may produce drug-resistant strains. For patients who require hospitalization and community pneumonia, additional corticosteroids can be given.

Traditionally, treatment for pneumonia is about 7 to 10 days, but there is evidence that short-term treatments of 3 to 5 days are equally effective. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (Hospital-acquired pneumonia) recommends the use of third or fourth generation cephalosporins, carbapenems (Carbapenems), quinolones, aminoglycoside antibiotics, vancomycin, etc. Antibiotics are often administered in combination with intravenous injection. Some patients treated with 90% in the hospital are given antibiotics and their condition improves.

(2) Viral pneumonia: Neuraminidase inhibitors can treat viral pneumonia caused by influenza viruses (such as influenza A and influenza B). If other types of community acquire viral pneumonia (such as severe acute respiratory There are no specific antiviral drugs available for systemic syndrome, adenovirus, hantavirus, and parainfluenza. Influenza A can be treated with rimantadine or amantadine, while influenza A or B can be treated Oseltamivir, zanamivir (zanamivir) or peramivir (peramivir) treatment. If it is treated within 48 hours after the onset of symptoms, the effect is best. The H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus (also known as avian Many strains of the influenza virus have become resistant to rimantadine and amantadine. Some experts still recommend antibiotics for viral pneumonia, because concurrent bacterial infections cannot be ruled out. The British Thoracic Society (British Thoracic Society) recommends If symptoms are mild, do not use antibiotics. The use of corticosteroids in viral pneumonia is still controversial.

(3) Aspiration pneumonia: Generally speaking, aspiration pneumonia will be treated with antibiotics originally used to treat aspiration pneumonia. The choice of antibiotics is related to many factors, including suspected pathogenic microorganisms, and whether pneumonia is community-acquired or suffered in the hospital. Common medications include clindamycin, a combination of beta-lactam antibiotics and metronidazole, or aminoglycoside antibiotics. Corticosteroids are sometimes used to treat aspiration pneumonia, but there is not enough evidence to prove its efficacy.

8, Multiple treatment options of Chinese medicine for respiratory infections

(1)Chinese medicineIt has good curative effect on common cold and seasonal cold (flu). In areas and cities where there are epidemic trends or possible epidemics, the use of corresponding Chinese medicine for prevention and treatment can achieve significant results. Ginseng, Astragalus, Schisandra, Lycium barbarum, Codonopsis, Cordyceps, Ganoderma lucidum and Tremella polysaccharides, etc. have the effect of improving immune function.

    #Commonly used Chinese medicine prescriptions for colds

* Chinese medicines with heat-clearing, detoxifying and anti-viral effects can also be used to help improve symptoms and shorten the course of the disease. For example, Xiaochaihu granules and Banlangen granules are widely used.

* Wind-cold cold: Xin Wen relieves the table, spreads the lungs and dispels cold. Recipe: Jingfangbaidu powder.

* Fengreganmao: Xinliang relieves the surface, clears the lungs and clears away heat. Recipe: Yinqiao San.

* Seasonal cold (flu): increase green leaves, isatis root, fleas, Guanzhong, gypsum, etc.

* Shushi cold: clear heat and dispel dampness to relieve the table. Recipe: Newly added fragrant barbarian drink.

* Physical weakness and cold: old age or physical weakness, or after illness, postpartum weakness, qi deficiency and yin deficiency, poor health outside, prone to repeated colds, or lingering after a cold, so its syndrome and treatment are different from ordinary colds. Colds due to physical weakness can be divided into colds with qi deficiency and colds with yin deficiency.

    Insufficiency of Qi and colds: Replenishing Qi and relieving forms. Recipe: Shensu Yin addition and subtraction.

    Yin deficiency and cold: nourishes yin and relieves the surface. Recipe: addition and subtraction of Wei Liao Decoction.

     #Commonly used Chinese medicine prescriptions for pneumonia:Jinhua Qinggan Granules, Lianhua Qingwen Capsules/ Granules, Xuebijing Injection, Qingfei Paidu Decoction, Huashibaidu Recipe, Xuanfeibaidu Granules, etc.

According to the macroscopic view of traditional Chinese medicine, whether a cold occurs is determined by two factors, righteous qi and evil qi. Righteous qi is the body's own immunity, and evil qi refers to the six evils (wind, cold, heat, dampness, and fire, six elements that originate from the outside world and cause people to get sick). The first factor is whether righteous qi can resist evil. The Yellow Emperor's Nei Jing said: "There is righteous qi, evil cannot be done, and where evil is, the qi must be empty." If the blood is full, the blood is flowing smoothly, and the immunity is strong, viruses and bacteria have to overflow and become a disaster; otherwise, it will be harmed by viruses and bacteria. The second factor is whether evil spirits can overcome righteousness, that is, the severity of the evil spirits. If the evil spirits are not enough to overcome the regularity, you will not get a cold. The evil spirits are like severe cold and the virus (flu). Key factor.

Due to the limited chapters, specific theories will not be discussed one by one. The following are the various types of cold syndromes, you can learn from them, but remember not to apply them mechanically. It is the responsibility of doctors to treat syndromes based on syndrome differentiation and to use drugs reasonably. Of course, if you can cure it without medicine, or improve your own immunity, so that your body can resist virus invasion, prevention is also a good way to save time and money.

(2)Acupuncture:Yemen, Dazhui, Quchi, Hegu, Shaoshang, and people are effective against colds and upper respiratory tract infections; in the treatment of new coronary pneumonia, acupuncture therapy is used to regulate inflammatory responses, and early intervention can inhibit and adjust immune responses. Reduce the risk of "inflammatory response factor storm", related acupuncture points:

* Medical observation period: Fengmen, Feishu, Pishu, Hegu, Quchi, Chize, Yuji, Qihai, Zusanli, Sanyinjiao;

* Recovery period: Hegu, Taichong, Tiantu, Chize, Kongzui, Zusanli, Sanyinjiao, Dazhu, Fengmen, Feishu, Xinshu, Geshu, Zhongfu, Tanzhong, Qihai, Guanyuan, Zhong Wan

* Clinical treatment period: Neiguan, Zusanli, Zhongwan, Tianshu, Qihai

(The above acupuncture points are divided into main points and matching points, and they should be different from person to person)

(3)Gua Sha: For acute respiratory infections, select acupoints: Forehead, Sun, Fengchi, Fengfu, Dazhui, Xiangsan Belt, Scapular Ring, Tanzhong, Quchi, Chize, Hegu, Neiguan, Yuji, Zusanli, Fenglong , Sanyinjiao, both sides of the spine, Fengmen, Feishu, Zhongfu, Yunmen, Kongzui, front chest, arms, calves, etc.; for bronchial asthma, select points: Dingchuan, Feishu, Tiantu, Tanzhong, Zhongfu , Tianfu, Chize, Lieque, Zusanli, etc.; for acute bronchitis, select acupoints: Dingchuan, Feishu, Tiantu, Yufu, Zigong, Shenfeng, Chize, Lieque, Fenglong; for chronic For bronchitis, acupoint selection: Fengchi, Tianzhu, Dazhui, Dazuo, Feishu, Zhongfu, Tanzhong, Zhongwan, Lieque, Hegu, etc.; for pneumonia and new coronary pneumonia, acupoint selection: Yunmen in the lung meridian The points follow the lung meridian to the Shaoshang point of the palm of the thumb, and follow the body surface from the outside of the chest to the radial side of the palm; for children with pneumonia, select acupoints: Dazhui, Dazhao, Shenzhu, Feishu, Chize, Hegu, Kongzu , Zhongchong, Honglong, Shixuan (two hands and ten finger tips), etc.; for children with bronchial pneumonia, take Renmai, Zhongfu, Tiantu, Tanzhong, Zutaiyang bladder meridian, Feishu (double), Xinshu Lieque , Asthma, Fengmen, Chize and other acupoints.

(4)Moxibustion points: Fengmen, Guanyuan, Qihai, Zusanli, etc. It can warm the yang, dispel cold and dehumidify, regulate the spleen and stomach, enhance immunity, and prevent colds.

9, Nutritional therapy for respiratory infections

(1)Normal diet: Pay attention to balanced nutrition, light ingredients, and easy-to-digest foods; do not eat greasy, big fish and meaty foods, cold, irritating (spicy, wine) foods; drink plenty of boiled water, lemonade, chrysanthemum tea, cassia tea, etc. ; Eat more foods with high VC content (lemon, orange, kiwi, dragon fruit, etc.) to enhance physical fitness and immunity; if you have symptoms such as dry throat, dry mouth, upset, green tea, tempeh, yogurt, etc. are recommended; insomnia, etc. Symptoms, recommend wild jujube kernels, cypress kernels, yogurt, bananas, etc.; recommended ingredients for pneumonia: yogurt, peanuts, sesame oil, sesame oil, angelica, etc.

(2)Respiratory tract soup and porridge: Millet yam porridge, egg soup, egg custard, double flower lemon red date tea, gong pear lemon juice, rock sugar stewed winter jujube, radish juice, peach kernel porridge, Luohan persimmon soup, lily sugarcane soup, goji berry soup, apple lemon wheatgrass juice, Yam and mung bean paste, mung bean and white fungus syrup, shepherd's purse and lean meat porridge, red dates and fig soup, red brown rice and lily porridge, broccoli and bacon cream soup, etc.

(3)Cold diet: Cold cold, ginger brown sugar tea, ginger Su tea, perilla porridge; Fengre cold, honeysuckle porridge, chrysanthemum tea, cabbage mung bean drink; rheumatic cold, white radish soup, etc.

(4)Effective nutrition preparation: Probiotics, probiotics, digestive enzymes, blueberry extract, garlic extract, calcium magnesium zinc, VA, VB, VC, VE, curcumin, astaxanthin, proanthocyanidin, coenzyme Q10, resveratrol, arginine, Lycopene, seal oil, hyssop, oregano oil, Antrodia cinnamomea, spirulina, Gynostemma, etc.

Nutrition therapy varies from person to person and to physique; there are adjustments for different diseases and courses. For the selection of ingredients and nutrition matching plan, please consult Dr. Long, the original author of Huizhou Education.

10, Health management of respiratory infections

(1)Misunderstanding one: You must take medicine for colds. In fact, improving immunity is the best way; of course, if you are really uncomfortable, drink plenty of water and rest, you can consult a nutritionist or health manager to supplement some nutrition and functional nutrition preparations;

(2)Misunderstanding 2: Pneumonia must be transfused. In fact, this depends on the severity of the symptoms. You can consult a doctor, nutritionist or health manager. While medication or transfusion, supplement some nutrition and functional nutritional preparations;

(3)Humidifier pneumonia: If the humidifier is turned on for 24 hours, and the humidity exceeds 80%, fungi and bacteria will grow. After the human body is inhaled, it may cause respiratory diseases through the respiratory tract; do not add materials at will: essential oils, disinfectants, perfumes, vinegar, isatis root, etc., the smell is strong , Containing chemical substances, children and the elderly have a great impact on health after inhalation;

(4)Air filter (air purifier): A good air purifier, whether it is decoration pollution, or the pungent smell released during the use of cleaning agents, or even second-hand smoke that is extremely difficult to remove, can be filtered, and can absorb and filter most of the air such as formaldehyde and TVOC Harmful gases, odors and chemical substances; but remember to clean the filter;

(5)Child atomizer: Common aerosol treatment drugs usually have a miraculous effect, lasting for several hours, and finally being broken down by the body's metabolism, so they need to be administered multiple times according to the condition; after the symptoms are alleviated, you must use effective nutritional preparations to repair the respiratory function; specific use Principles, please consult the author of this article;

(6)Respiratory tract infectionTo distinguish it from symptoms such as rhinitis and respiratory allergies caused by intestinal leakage, please consult the author of this article for specific identification and treatment methods;

(7) Once there are mild symptoms of respiratory infection, it should be used immediatelyAntioxidant to fight infectionFor example, VC, VE, proanthocyanidins, coenzyme Q10, blueberry extract, garlic extract, probiotics, etc., have no effect after three days, and then go to the hospital for examination; don’t wait until the symptoms are obvious and serious, go directly to the hospital for infusion injections. This is very Wrong approach

(8)Physical fitness, Is the most basic health management measures, such as gymnastics, yoga, stretching exercises, Ba Duan Jin, Tai Chi, Five Elements Music Therapy, Empathy and Change, Breathing Six-character Jue, Breathing Healing Method, "Three One Two" Meridian exercises, DL space-time meridian exercises, etc.;

(9)Home self massageAcupoints for cold prevention: Yingxiang, Fengchi, Lieque, Auricle, Dazhui, Jianjing, Zusanli, etc.; for chronic bronchitis: Zhongfu, Tanzhong, Tiantu, Dazhui Acupoints, Dingchuan, Fengmen, Chize, Taiyuan, Zusanli, Yongquan, Fenglong, Spleen, etc.; for pneumonia points: Neiguan, Tanzhong, Kongzui, Zusanli, etc. Etc. Acupoints for improving immunity: Hegu, Zhongwan, Qihai, Guanyuan, Zusanli, etc.;

Conclusion

Sunlight, air, and water are the foundation for the growth of everything. The same goes for the human body, where the health of the respiratory tract is the king of all health. At the same time, the destruction of nature by human industrialization has led to serious atmospheric circulation problems and air quality problems, which in turn affects human respiratory health.

Prevention is the top priority for respiratory health. Improving the body's own immunity is the most basic and the most economical best solution without toxic side effects to prevent respiratory diseases. Returning to nature, getting close to nature, breathing fresh air, and exposure to negative ions are the simplest and practical ways to prevent respiratory diseases.

For other related professional and cutting-edge health management blog posts, please go to the Huizhou website chelsea98.com/blog. Please continue reading:

  • "The world's 3rd leading cause of death-COPD, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease you must know",
  • "Is there a life-threatening respiratory disease",
  • "Wise Zhou million dragon health management: 15 cases of allergy" and so on.

references

1. https://www.who.int/zh/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

2. https://www.unicef.org/zh/node/28491

3. https://www.who.int/zh/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(seasonal)

4. https://www.cn-healthcare.com/article/20201015/wap-content-544143.html

5. https://www.cn-healthcare.com/articlewm/20200720/content-1131463.html

6,https://zh.m.wikipedia.org/zh/%E8%82%BA%E7%82%8E

7, https://www.uptodate.com/contents/zh-Hans/pneumonia-in-children-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-etiology

8. http://m.chinacdc.cn/xwzx/gwxx/201902/t20190213_199483.html

9, http://finance.eastmoney.com/a/201909211243903088.html

10. http://subject.med.wanfangdata.com.cn/UpLoad/Files/202002/1d6e9ab2a8d04b018147d7c654fada46.pdf

11. https://www.chubun.com/modules/article/view.article.php/188629/c1

12. https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/40959100

13, http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2020-03/18/c_1125729859.htm

14, https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/zh-cn/782

15, https://www.sohu.com/a/193087963_377331

16,https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%84%BF%E7%AB%A5%E5%93%AE%E5%96%98

*** Every article, Huizhou’s experts have carefully written, edited and checked, please trust the experts’ suggestions,If you have any questions, please email info@chelsea98.com ***

Smart Week Million Dragon Big Health Project Dr. Kyle Long, Registered Dietitian, Registered Health Manager,-Sincere. Clear. Efficiently and Personally Improve FAH Financial Quotient and Health Quotient-From Chelsea98.com, Smart Financial Education Group

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