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We all know that people who detoxify and shape their bodies and fitness and beautify the body need to take in a lot of protein. They need protein for muscle gain and protein for fat loss. In the current epidemic situation, protein is needed to repair immunity and increase the body's internal antibodies. According to the latest research report, human beings will face the living environment of the harmful infectious virus epidemic for a long time in the future, and immunity becomes particularly important.
What is protein?
Protein is one of the most important nutrients in the human body. It is a constituent of human tissues, as a constituent of various physiologically active substances in the body, and can also be metabolized to release energy when needed by the human body, which plays an important role in maintaining the normal physiological activities of the human body. Plays an irreplaceable role.
There are many ways in which we can consume protein. Isn't that the same as long as the protein is eaten? Is there no difference in the nutritional value of protein?
First we take protein,Mainly ingest the protein9Kinds of essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine, infants also need to add two: arginine Acid, histidine), but not all the amino acids in each protein source are complete, some of them may be missing, and the digestibility, absorption rate and utilization rate of various protein sources are also different. Secondly, protein is usually combined with fat (including cholesterol) and is also an essential nutrient for the human body. Protein is usually combined with other nutrients, such as antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. For people with different protein nutritional needs, it is necessary to understand these differences.
Here are the 8 common protein sources and nutritional differences.
First1The species is poultry eggs.
Poultry eggs include eggs, duck eggs, goose eggs, quail eggs, and pigeon eggs. Only duck eggs are cold. In addition, other animal eggs include: turtle eggs, turtle eggs, crocodile eggs, ostrich eggs, roe (fish eggs) and so on.
eggIt is a very high-quality protein source. It contains 9 essential amino acids for the human body, and is very similar to the composition of human protein. The human body's absorption rate of egg protein can be as high as 98%. Eggs are known as "total nutrition" food. Every 100g of eggs has about 13g of protein and 11g-15g of fat, most of which are concentrated in the yolk. Egg yolk is rich in lecithin, sterols, lecithin, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, B, and D. These ingredients are of great benefit to enhancing the function of the nervous system. There will be no problem in supplementing 1-2 egg yolks every day.
Duck eggsIt is the only cold egg among common eggs, which can clear the heat of the lungs, remove irritability, nourish yin and moisturize dryness. Therefore, people with strong yin deficiency and sore throat can choose duck eggs. Duck eggs are very rich in vitamin B2, protein, mineral elements, especially calcium and iron are extremely high, which can effectively prevent anemia and promote bone development. In addition, eating duck eggs can protect and nourish the cardiovascular system.
Goose eggPeople with sexual temperature and cold body can choose to eat in moderation. For people with chronic illness and physical weakness, chronic nephritis, and hepatitis, eating goose eggs can better nourish the body and prevent illness and cold evil from harming the body. The lecithin in goose eggs is the most common edible egg, which can lower blood fat, strengthen the heart, and promote brain development. Therefore, people who use the brain frequently and have poor cardiovascular conditions can choose goose eggs.
quail eggsIts nutritional value is no less than that of eggs. It contains high protein, cephalin, lecithin, iron and vitamins. Therefore, it has better skin care and skin beautification effects. Quail eggs are more nourishing and can help prevent lung disease, asthma, neurasthenia and other diseases. Quail eggs have a complete variety of amino acids and are rich in content; the content of iron, riboflavin, and vitamin A are about twice higher than the same amount of eggs.
Pigeon eggsContains a lot of high-quality protein and a small amount of fat, and contains a small amount of sugar, as well as phospholipids, iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin D and other nutrients, easy to digest and absorb. Pigeon eggs are high-end nutrition for pregnant women, children, patients and other people. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that pigeon eggs are sweet and salty, and have the functions of nourishing liver and kidney, nourishing vital energy, and enriching skin.
Turtle eggsIts extracts are reported to be effective in preventing and inhibiting cancer cells of liver cancer, gastric cancer, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and used to prevent symptoms such as weakness, anemia, and leukopenia caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy; turtle eggs also have better blood purification It can lower blood cholesterol for regular eaters, which is beneficial to patients with high blood pressure and coronary heart disease; tortoise eggs can also make up for injuries, aphrodisiac and yin deficiency; tortoise eggs are effective for tuberculosis, anemia, physical weakness and other diseases It also has a certain auxiliary effect.
Turtle eggsIt is a good health product with high protein, low fat, low sugar and low cholesterol. The protein content of turtle eggs is 1.84 times that of eggs, the calcium content is 4.2 times that of eggs, riboflavin is twice that of eggs, sugar is 1/16 of that of eggs, and fat is 1/2 of that of eggs. In addition, it also contains vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin E, and trace elements such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and iron.
Crocodile eggIt has the effect of nourishing and strengthening the lungs. Crocodile eggs are rich in protein, low in fat, and low in cholesterol, so they have been a nourishing and strengthening lung soup since ancient times. Crocodile eggs can help children increase brain nutrition and improve memory; crocodile eggs can also prevent middle-aged and elderly people from "four highs", arteriosclerosis and senile dementia, and can also improve immunity. In addition, the consumption of crocodile eggs by pregnant women can also supplement fetal nutrition and improve fetal intelligence and physical development.
Ostrich eggIt is rich in protein, fat, lecithin, vitamins and other nutrients, which can meet the nutritional needs of the human body. The lecithin in ostrich eggs is the most among eggs. It is well known that lecithin has a good effect on the nervous system and physical development, can delay the mental decline of the elderly, improve memory, and is also a good nutrition for students. Ostrich eggs are rich in various vitamins and trace elements. Long-term use can improve the symptoms of anemia.
roe(Fish eggs) is a nutritious food, which contains a lot of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamins and riboflavin. It is also rich in cholesterol. It is a good supplement and growth agent for the human brain and bone marrow. These nutrients are extremely important to the human body, especially to the growth and development of children, and are relatively easy to lack in our daily diet. The content of vitamin A, B, D in fish roe is also very rich, and vitamin A can prevent eye diseases, vitamin B can prevent athlete's foot and dysplasia, vitamin D can prevent rickets. In addition, fish eggs also contain a lot of nutrients such as cephalin.
First2The species is white meat.
Regarding white meat and red meat, the color of the food after cooking cannot be used as a criterion for judgment. The main factor that distinguishes red meat from white meat is whether the animal's muscle tissue has more fast muscle fibers or more slow muscle fibers. The muscles of slow-twitch fibers are usually used in continuous movements such as slow walking and standing (mainly four-legged animals). The characteristic of this muscle is rich in myoglobin, which stores a lot of oxygen, so it can support long-term energy consumption. The color of myoglobin is red, so red meat looks red. Fast-twitch fiber type muscles are used in short-term activities (mainly poultry, reptiles, amphibians, etc.). This kind of muscle does not have enough myoglobin energy and consumes glycogen. Because the color of glycogen is whitish, fast-twitch fiber type muscles are white meat.
From a nutritional point of view, if red meat and white meat are defined according to the content of myoglobin, although the myoglobin content of pork is lower than that of cattle and sheep, it should still be counted as red meat. According to the regulations of the United States Department of Agriculture, the meat of all livestock (livestock animals) is red meat, because the myoglobin content of livestock meat is higher than that of chickens.
White meat can include birds (chickens, ducks, geese, etc.), fish, reptiles (turtles, turtles, crocodiles, snakes, etc.), amphibians (frogs, toads, salamanders, salamanders, etc.), cephalopods (octopus) , Squid, cuttlefish), crustaceans (shrimp and crabs, etc.) or bivalves (oysters, clams, mussels), etc. Although salmon, cooked shrimps and crabs are all red, they cannot be counted as red meat. Generally common are chicken, duck, goose, turkey, quail, pigeon, prawn, crab, squid, shellfish, fish and so on. Fish have nothing to do with seawater or freshwater.
The protein content of white meat is very high, but the meat quality of white meat is generally finer, with short muscle fibers, less fat, less tendons (connective tissue), and loose meat. On the other hand, if it is artificially fed, it generally grows fast and has a relatively loose meat; while natural, it grows slowly, and its meat is relatively old, such as pheasants, ducks, and conch seashells. The fat of chicken, duck and goose is healthy. The saturated fat of lard is about 39%, and the saturated fat of chicken, duck and goose oil is about 30%. Among these oils, the main ones are not saturated fats, but monounsaturated fats: lard and chicken fat have 45%, duck fat has 49%, and goose fat has 56%. Certain deep-sea fish are rich in fats and can take in omega-3 fatty acids that are beneficial to the body, which is very beneficial to the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. White meat is rich in nutrition, delicious and delicious, and is a good source of vitamins and minerals. Aquatic products are generally colder in food, while duck meat on land is colder in nature, and the rest are basically mild or flat. Compared with red meat, white meat is more recommended, especially for patients, middle-aged and elderly people and people who need to lose weight.
First3The species is red meat.
Red meat is a nutritional term that refers to meat that appears red before cooking, such as pork, beef, lamb, venison, donkey, rabbit, etc. All mammal meat is red meat. Red meat is high in fat, especially pork. The fat content in 100 grams of pork is as high as 30.3 grams, while the fat content in 100 grams of chicken is only about 10 grams, which is only 1/3 of pork. Even lean pork has a high fat content. Moreover, the fat of red meat is mostly saturated fat, which is more saturated fat than white meat; the content of unsaturated fat in red meat is lower than that in white meat. For example, the unsaturated fat in beef only accounts for 6.5% of the total fat, while in the fat of chicken, the unsaturated fat accounts for 24.7%, which is nearly four times that of beef.
Most of the red meat has good protein quality, especially pork and beef. Red meat contains 9 essential amino acids, and the quantity and ratio are close to what the human body needs. The protein content is also relatively high, generally 100 grams, there are more than 25 grams of protein. After cooking, some of the protein of meat will be scattered in the broth, and some will be hydrolyzed into amino acids and dissolved in the broth. Therefore, the cooked broth is delicious and nutritious. Different cooking methods, red meat is broken down into various amino acids for use by the body, which does not affect the nutritional value of protein itself. What we really want to avoid and pay attention to is spoiled meat. When the edible meat is rotten, then we should avoid eating it. This is because the amino acids are broken down by bacteria and converted into other substances, and generally lose their nutritional value. , And even become toxic and harmful substances, they can no longer be eaten.
Do you want to bleed? The blood must be released. Modern formal slaughter, as large as cattle, sheep and pigs, as small as chickens, ducks and geese, will be bloodletted. The taste is second, the most important is preservation and nutrition. Animals that have not been bled are more prone to rot and have peculiar smells, and animals that have been bled can be stored longer. Of course, bloodletting during slaughter does not mean that the blood in the meat is completely drained. There are still many capillaries hidden in the fibers of the meat. Parasites are another problem.
The healthiest meat (fresh meat) now is cold meat (sour pork), not frozen meat. Chilled meat is also called fresh meat, chilled meat. Chilled meat refers to the strict implementation of the veterinary quarantine system, the rapid cooling of the carcass after slaughter, so that the temperature of the carcass (the center of the thigh will be the measuring point) will be reduced to 0-4 ℃ within 24 hours, and in the subsequent processing, Keep fresh at 0-4°C during circulation and sales. Chilled meat can be stored for seven days at -2-5°C. Frozen meat refers to animal meat that is frozen and preserved in an environment below -23°C after slaughter. From a bacteriological point of view, when the meat is frozen to -18°C, the growth and reproduction of most microorganisms is inhibited, which is relatively safe and sanitary. However, the water in the meat will increase in volume by about 9% during the freezing process, and the formation of a large number of ice crystals will cause cell rupture, and the tissue structure will be destroyed to a certain extent. When thawing, the juice in the tissue cells will precipitate, resulting in the loss of nutrients. And the flavor will be significantly reduced. The general shelf life is several months or even longer.
First4The species is legume protein.
China is the country with the earliest and longest spread of legumes. China's traditional soy products are rich and colorful. Generally can be divided into two categories: non-fermented and fermented. Non-fermented beans include whole beans (such as mung beans, red beans, black beans, edamame, green beans, dried beans, peas, peanuts, etc.), bean sprouts, soy milk (soy milk), water tofu, dried tofu (such as dried tofu, tofu, and tofu skin) , Qian Zhang, etc.), oily tofu, frozen tofu, etc. Fermented products include tempeh, soybean paste, edamame, sour milk, fermented bean curd, natto, tempeh, etc. Popular beans in Europe and America include snow peas, lima beans, chickpeas and so on. Almond milk and coconut milk, although not beans (belonging to fruit protein sources), are also rich in protein, and soy milk (soy milk), soy milk, etc., belong to the category of plant milk. In terms of nutrition, all the above plant proteins are considered white meat.
Soy protein is currently the only plant protein reported to contain 9 essential amino acids needed by the human body, and the content meets the needs of the human body, and is the main source of protein for vegetarians. The protein of soybeans is 4-5 times that of cereals (the protein of cereals is incomplete protein). It is best not to use boiling water for soy protein edible temperature. Boiling water at 100°C will destroy the structure of soy protein and reduce the nutritional value. The soy isoflavones and other substances contained in soy protein give the soy protein a certain fishy taste. Bean foods generally contain protease inhibitors, lectins, alkaloids, phytic acid and other anti-nutrients. Before eating, they need to be handled carefully, scientifically, and healthy.
First5The species is seaweed.
Seaweeds include microalgae (such as spirulina) and macroalgae (common kelp, laver, etc.). The algae has a balanced and comprehensive nutrition and is known as a "mini-nutrient bank", and has many "special functions", which can improve the body's immunity, prevent and treat diseases, and delay aging. Seaweed food is rich in protein, dietary fiber, carbohydrates, vitamins and trace elements. There are many kinds of seaweed food. The common kelp, seaweed, wakame, etc. in our daily life have relatively high protein content. Among them, the protein contained in seaweed ranks first in seaweed foods, which is similar to the protein contained in soybeans. The protein content per 100 grams is about 24-28 grams, wakame is about 14.21 grams, and sea cabbage is about 11.2 grams. 8.2 grams of kelp. The protein content of seaweeds changes with the seasons, usually at the end of winter and spring, the protein content is higher, and the protein content in summer is lower.
Algae are rich in amino acids, vitamins, and essential minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium, iodine, iron, silicon, manganese, and zinc, some of which are not found in terrestrial vegetables. Algae contains high-quality protein resources, which is mainly reflected in the large number of amino acids and rich varieties. Generally, plants lack lysine, milk and meat products lack methionine, corn, rice, etc. lack tryptophan, and algae foods, especially the rich amino acids in seaweed, can make up for the lack of essential amino acids in daily food and improve grain protein nutrition value.
In addition to protein, the algae rich in cellulose, organic iodine, sodium alginate and other ingredients help delay gastric emptying, accelerate glucose metabolism, enhance insulin activity, and stabilize blood sugar. Eating seaweed foods such as kelp, laver, etc., especially kelp has an affinity for radioactive materials. The kelp gel can promote the excretion of radioactive materials in the body with stool, thereby reducing the accumulation of radioactive materials in the human body and reducing the occurrence of radiological diseases. rate. Not only for formaldehyde in the body, vegetarian food has the reputation of "human scavenger", which can help the human body to eradicate many harmful substances produced and accumulated in the metabolic process. The content of algae dietary fiber is extremely high, up to dry weight of 40%-60%. Dietary fiber is not easy to be digested and absorbed by the human body, which can effectively prevent "richness diseases" caused by "overnutrition", such as high blood sugar and high blood lipids. In addition, the fucoidan contained in algae has certain anti-cancer and anti-tumor effects, and is considered to be a "very promising anti-cancer food."
First6The species is mushrooms.
Mushrooms, commonly known as mushrooms and mushrooms, are large, higher-level fungi, and their fruit bodies are usually visible to the naked eye. The hyphae have transverse partitions, which separate the hyphae into multiple cells. However, the term mushroom is usually a general term for some of the edible fungi of the genus Agaricus, and common mushrooms include Agaricus bisporus, Agrocybe, and mushrooms. Mushroom is also a common name for fungal fruiting bodies in the sexual reproduction stage of fungi. Athlete's foot is one of the most common clinical fungal infections, belonging to very tiny dermatophytes.
The protein contained in mushrooms accounts for about 30%-45% of dry weight, which is 3-6 times that of ordinary vegetables such as Chinese cabbage, white radish and tomatoes. Mushrooms and other mushrooms can not only meet the demand for protein, but also the types of amino acids that make up protein are very complete, there are about seventeen or eight kinds, the structure is also very conducive to the body's absorption, rich in vitamins and trace elements. Fungus-eating foods such as shiitake mushrooms, flowering mushrooms, mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, hericium edodes, black fungus, white fungus, etc., because these fungus foods can clean blood, detoxify, cool blood, enhance immune function and inhibit cancer cells. Edible, can effectively remove body dirt. Flammulina velutipes is cold in nature, cold in the spleen and stomach, and people with chronic diarrhea should eat less. Patients with arthritis and lupus erythematosus should also eat carefully to avoid aggravating the condition. The fungus likes to grow in shady and humid places, while the food in the shady north side absorbs heavy moisture and rarely sees the sun, so the sex is relatively cold.
Mushrooms contain a lot of soluble sugar, even if nothing is added, they will have a refreshing sweetness. The amino acids in food also give food a certain flavor. For example, aspartic acid and glutamic acid can provide a "umami" taste, and glycine and alanine can increase the "sweet" feeling on the basis of "freshness", so many people Use shiitake mushroom powder instead of MSG or chicken essence. What's more, the flavoring nucleotides in mushrooms can make the umami flavor of these amino acids more prominent. Studies have shown that when guanylic acid and glutamic acid are mixed in a ratio of 12:88, they can present 9.1 times the flavor of glutamic acid. Mushrooms contain more dietary fiber, which can promote intestinal peristalsis, and even the fungal polysaccharides in them have certain benefits in regulating the intestinal flora. There is also a special dietary fiber called "chitin" in mushrooms. It generally exists in the shells of crustaceans. Not only is it not easy to be chewed, but it is also difficult to digest in the stomach and intestines. Flammulina velutipes can "see you tomorrow" It is because of its existence (to be eaten today, and to be discharged tomorrow "as is").
First7The species is nuts.
Nuts can be roughly divided into protein nuts, fatty nuts and carbohydrate nuts, which are divided by the most important nutrient proportion of the nutrients. Generally speaking, in addition to protein, fat, and carbon water, nuts also contain vitamins (vitamin B, vitamin E, etc.), trace elements (phosphorus, calcium, zinc, iron), dietary fiber, etc. In addition, it also contains monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, including essential fatty acids such as linolenic acid and linoleic acid. Nuts contain more leucine. Eat more nuts to supplement leucine, which can help you gain muscle.
Nut foods rich in protein (also called longevity fruit, plant meat) include: pumpkin seeds, watermelon seeds, hazelnuts, almonds, peanuts, sunflower seeds, flax seeds, sesame seeds, pecans, cashews, lotus seeds, pine nuts , Ginkgo, etc. According to measurements, every 100 grams of walnuts contains 50-64 grams of fat, 71% in walnuts is linoleic acid, 12% is linoleic acid, and protein is 15-20 grams; walnut protein is also high-quality protein, and walnuts contain fat and protein. It is the best nutrient for the brain; walnut sugar is 10 grams, and contains calcium, phosphorus, iron, carotene, riboflavin (vitamin B2), vitamin B6, vitamin E, juglone, phospholipids, tannins and other nutrients substance. Ginkgo protein has about 12%, one third of which are essential amino acids. Pumpkin seeds are also called pumpkin seeds, white melon seeds, pumpkin seeds and so on. Pumpkin seeds are rich in nutrients, including fat about 50% and protein 30%-40%. After defatting, the protein content of pumpkin seeds can reach more than 60%, and its protein is rich in amino acid composition. It is a good source of plant protein. Pumpkin seeds have the highest protein content, much higher than other nuts. The protein content of nuts such as almonds and peanuts is relatively high.
Studies have shown that people who eat an ounce of nuts at least twice a week are 47% less likely to die from a sudden heart attack than those who do not eat nuts at all. Because nuts are rich in protein, they also contain trace elements necessary for humans such as zinc, manganese, and phosphorus, which can regulate the secretion of the human body and also have a good regulation function for the brain and nerves. Studies have found that people who eat nuts have a lower risk of coronary heart disease, especially for the heart. Nuts can effectively reduce the risk and risk of heart disease.
First8This is protein powder.
Protein powder is generally made of purified soy protein, pea protein, casein, whey protein (lack of isoleucine) and other proteins, or a combination of the above-mentioned proteins, which is rich in protein (may contain Some short peptides, small peptides, amino acids) are used to supplement protein for people who lack protein. The common ones are soy protein powder and whey protein powder. Protein powder is the only refined food (non-natural food) among all human protein sources. Take the most common concentrated whey protein powder as an example. Its advantages: the protein content is between 70%-80%; the composition is simple, the content of carbohydrate and fat is small; it contains 9 essential amino acids, and the absorption and utilization rate is high. Generally speaking, compared to other high-protein foods (such as meat, eggs, beans), protein powder contains less fat and dietary fiber (generally the protein content is more than 80%, and the combined carbohydrate and fat are less than 20%).
Protein powder is a nutritional food supplement for specific populations. As an amino acid supplement food, it can provide essential nutrients for young children, the elderly, sports people, patients before and after surgery, and people who lose fat and lose weight due to lack of protein. In addition, people with poor appetite or poor digestion, as well as those who lose weight by not eating meat, and vegetarians, may not have enough protein or amino acid intake. This will not only lead to children's developmental delays, but also affect the normal metabolism of the body. It may also lead to various diseases such as weakened immune function, poor sleep and anemia. In these cases, high-quality protein powder becomes a good supplement.
For athletes, the digestibility of common protein powders is very high, especially the most familiar whey protein powder. The high digestibility is very important for the body's absorption and utilization after training. Regardless of the nutritional ratio and digestibility, using protein powder to supplement protein is not much different from the protein that we eat from food in our usual diet. However, two hours after fitness exercise, our muscles will be in a state of accelerated synthesis. At this time, supplementing a sufficient amount of protein can help the body reorganize better. In addition, from the amino acid ratio, the content of various essential amino acids in whey protein powder is also much higher than that of general foods, especially the branched chain amino acids (BCAA, which will be explained in detail below), which is great for fitness. help. Branched chain amino acids can help the body resist fatigue and muscle breakdown during exercise. For those who gain muscle, it effectively prevents muscle breakdown during exercise. For those who lose fat, more muscle is also a guarantee for high daily calorie consumption, because muscles consume several times more calories a day than fat!
Analysis of protein nutritional value
1, Protein and amino acid content
The above eight protein sources have their own advantages and disadvantages. When we evaluate the nutrition of protein, we should not only look at the ratio of protein, but more importantly, the quality of protein, that is, whether the types of essential amino acids in the food are complete, whether the quantity is sufficient, and whether the ratio between amino acids is appropriate. In nutrition, food protein is divided into three categories according to the type and quantity of amino acids contained in food protein:
◆ Complete protein: It is a kind of high-quality protein. They contain a complete variety of essential amino acids, in sufficient quantities, and in an appropriate ratio to each other. This type of protein can not only maintain human health, but also promote growth and development, such as animal protein and legume protein.
◆ Semi-complete protein: Although this type of protein contains a wide range of amino acids, some of them cannot meet the needs of the human body. They can maintain life, but cannot promote growth and development. They are more common in grains.
◆ Incomplete protein: This type of protein cannot provide all the essential amino acids needed by the human body. They can neither promote growth nor sustain life, such as the glial protein in the skin and the square rice.
Various proteins in the human body are composed of more than 20 kinds of amino acids, of which9This kind of amino acid cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through food. Most animal protein contains all the essential amino acids, in sufficient quantity, appropriate ratio, and relatively high nutritional value; while most plant protein lacks1-2Kind of essential amino acids.
The nutritional value of staple food protein in cereals is far inferior to animal protein. The main defect is that there is a serious shortage of lysine, and the content of methionine and phenylalanine is not high.. Because the amino acid pattern of dietary protein is closer to the body's protein components, the more it adapts to the body's need for protein synthesis after digestion and absorption, the easier it is to be used by the body. Large amounts of other amino acids will also be consumed by the body as fuel and excreted from the body. Therefore, vegetarianism usually suffers from nutritional deficiencies, which is the main reason. By the way, talk about cereal protein. The protein content of cereals is generally between 7.5-15%, mainly composed of gluten, albumin, gliadin and bladder white. The composition of essential amino acids in general cereal protein is not balanced. The content of glutamic acid, proline, and leucine of cereal protein is high, while the content of lysine is low, and the content of threonine, tryptophan, phenylalanine and methionine is low. , Its protein nutritional value is lower than animal food. Some grain protein (g/100g) comparison: rice 7.4, corn flour (white) 8.0, corn flour 8.1, millet 9.0, buckwheat 9.3, sorghum 10.4, barley 10.4, wheat 11.9, naked oat 12.2; the average protein content of quinoa is 16% , Up to 22%, it can be said that it is a plant with protein comparable to meat.
Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) include valine, leucine and isoleucine, all of which are essential amino acids for the human body.Branched-chain amino acids are a useful energy source and can be directly used by skeletal muscle, myocardium, brain and other tissues. These amino acids promote anabolism (muscle growth) in two special ways: ①Promote insulin release; ②Promote growth hormone release. Most of the amino acid metabolism in the body is carried out in the liver, while branched-chain amino acids are mainly metabolized in skeletal muscle. About 35%, which accounts for the essential amino acids of skeletal muscle protein, is closely related to the synthesis of skeletal muscle. Branched chain amino acids are the only part of amino acids that are mainly metabolized outside the liver. That is to say, branched-chain amino acids are mainly metabolized in skeletal muscle, not through liver metabolism, which can reduce the burden on the liverPromote regeneration of liver cells and improve liver function.
Branched-chain amino acids are rich in food protein, accounting for about 15%-20% of the total protein intake. According to the data in the "Chinese Food Composition Table", soy products include tofu skin, yuba, dried tofu, soy milk, tofu, etc.; milk and products include milk powder, cow milk, etc.: eggs include eggs, quail eggs, etc.; fish Including grass carp, sea bass, yellow croaker, and pomfret; meats including pork belly, lean beef, lean pork and other foods have relatively high content of branched-chain amino acids, and the ratio of branched-chain amino acids/aromatic amino acids is relatively good.
2, Protein digestibility, absorption rate and utilization rate
Generally speaking, the digestibility of animal food protein is higher than that of plant food protein. Under normal cooking conditions, milk protein digestibility is 97%-98%, meat protein digestibility is 92%-94%, egg protein digestibility is 98%, rice and pasta products are about 80%, potato is 74%, and corn flour is 66%. . Food protein digestibility (digestibility) is an indicator that reflects the degree to which food protein is broken down and absorbed in the digestive tract. Digestibility refers to the degree of absorption of food protein after being hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes. The calculation formula is: D=absorbed nitrogen/intaken nitrogen X100%.
The degree to which protein is stored and utilized in the body after being digested and absorbed, in addition to digestibility, also has absorption rate. Compared with plant protein, animal protein is better absorbed, and the absorption rate can reach more than 90%; while the outer layer of plant protein is wrapped with fiber film, the absorption rate is only about 40%. Utilization refers to the extent to which protein is stored in the body after being digested and absorbed. Its evaluation indicators include: the biological value of protein, net utilization, efficacy ratio, etc. In layman's terms, the extent to which protein is used after entering the body depends on the type, quantity and mutual composition of essential amino acids in food protein. In other words, the closer the amino acid pattern in food protein to the amino acid pattern required by the human body, the higher its utilization rate in the body.
Generally speaking, animal food has a higher protein content. The digestion and absorption rate is high, and its essential amino acid composition is more suitable for human needs. Besides soybeans, the general protein content of plant food protein is below 10%, and the digestion and absorption rate is below 80%. The essential amino acid composition is also due to lysine. The low acid content makes it poorly utilized in the body. Therefore, generally speaking, animal food protein has higher nutritional value than plant food protein.
3, Natural toxins and health risks
(1) Nitrogenous substances
After animal protein is metabolized, a large amount of nitrogenous substances are produced. Under normal circumstances, too much protein must be deaminated and decomposed, and nitrogen is excreted from the body by urine, which increases the metabolic burden. Moreover, this process requires a lot of water, which increases the burden on the kidneys. If the kidney function is not good. , The harm is even greater. Excessive intake of animal protein also results in excessive intake of sulfur-containing amino acids, which can accelerate the loss of calcium in the bones and easily lead to osteoporosis.
(2) Formaldehyde in food
Most foods contain formaldehyde, including fruits, vegetables, poultry and livestock meat and their products, fish, crustaceans, soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, etc. Some of them contain a lot of content and are extremely harmful to the human body. How toxic is formaldehyde and how harmful is it to the human body?Ranging from allergic dermatitis, stains, necrosis, and severely destroying human lung, liver and immune function, it is also a strong carcinogen and carcinogen. Adults take no more than 12mg of formaldehyde per day. Some of these formaldehyde are natural (especially fruits and vegetables), and some are artificially added (mainly aquatic products).
These formaldehyde-contaminated foods will eventually be served on the table and become a part of poisoning people's bodies. For example, aquatic products: squid, cuttlefish, sea oysters, clams, hairtail, whitebait, snail meat, etc.; meat products: such as minced meat, animal blood products, chicken feet, duck feet, etc.; dried products: abalone, sea cucumber, shark fin , Dried edible fungus, dried meat, dried fish. The types of foods that have been reported to have excessive formaldehyde content include various alcohol, dairy products, pickles, etc. Basically, the food that allows unscrupulous businesses to take advantage of is meat. The World Health Organization has found that if you accidentally inhale a small amount of formaldehyde, you can remove the residual formaldehyde molecules in your body by eating some detoxifying foods. For example, drinking fresh fruit juice and vegetable juice helps to remove the toxins and wastes accumulated in the body. After the fresh fruit juice and vegetable juice enter the digestive system of the body, it will make the blood alkaline and dissolve the toxins accumulated in the bacteria and pass the excretion system. Excreted from the body. In addition, mushrooms and seaweeds also have the effect of expelling formaldehyde toxins. For personalized detoxification methods and details, please consult the author.
(3) Synthetic meat
Synthetic meat, also known as recombined meat, combined meat, assembled meat, shaped meat, or glued meat as reported by some news reports, is the use of enzyme protein, chemical or physical methods to glue two or more pieces of meat from different sources. Put them together, freeze and press, and then divide and slice the meat. Needless to say,This contains a lot of unknown chemical agents, Is unhealthy meat.Common synthetic meats include: steak, beef and lamb rolls, fried chicken fillet, duck breast, ham and grilled sausages.
(4) Animal Special Organization
- Tetrodotoxin mainly exists in the liver and ovary of puffer fish; Shellfish toxin mainly exists in the liver and digestive organs;Scombroid toxin is mainly found in stale fish(Mackerel, bonito, bamboo octopus, etc.);The fish black coat is a black film coat on both sides of the fish’s abdominal cavity.It is the most fishy and earthy part of the fish body, and contains a lot of histamine, lipids, lysozyme and other substances;Poultry pointed wings (sacrum) are the long tail feathers at the upper end of poultry such as chickens, ducks and geese, There are a large number of lymph glands; the glands in the neck of birds include thymus and lymph glands, which are also an immune organ;Chicken head and duck head contain heavy metals, As the saying goes, ten years chicken head wins arsenic;The jujube of the pig neck has lymph nodes, Usually gray, yellow, dark red, looks like a fleshy bump, and is also an immune organ;Animal three glands should not be eaten, Namely thyroid, adrenal gland, diseased lymph gland,These three glands are physiologically harmful organs, containing toxins and hormones；Sheep tendon is the diseased tissue of sheep, also known as "white hoof beads". It is in the shape of a round bead. It is susceptible to infection by eating.. The above animal tissues either contain natural toxins, or lymph glands or other endocrine glands, and also contain natural toxins, or are organs that metabolize toxins, which will leave a large amount of toxins. It is recommended not to eat them.
Protein is one of the three main sources of energy. The selection of ingredients and the ratio of consumption should be taught by nutritionists. It is difficult for ordinary people to have professional and comprehensive knowledge. At the same time, protein is also a major factor in delicious food due to its rich aromatic amino acids. Human beings are omnivorous, and nutritional balance is especially important.
How to achieve nutritional balance (dietary balance)? How can people with sub-health or chronic diseases get enough protein? Please continue to follow the blog post.
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Huizhou Million Dragon Health Project Dr. Kyle Long, registered dietitian, registered health manager,-sincere, clear, efficient, FAH financial and health quotient education Chelsea98.com