常见慢性病的检查项目解析

-Dr. Long will make more people happy, the health education of one million dragons, Chelsea98.com.

In the world we live in, science and technology are becoming more and more advanced, and living standards have improved, but the number of chronic disease patients has not decreased, but has increased. So what are the check items for common chronic diseases? In this blog post, let us understand the principle of the inspection method and the standard value range, so that even if you are at home, you may be able to test yourself and your family? ? .

The first is the three routine examinations, namely blood routine, stool routine and urine routine;

With the continuous development of laboratory medicine and the deepening of clinical medicine, the three major routine examinations are far from being able to cover the various chronic disease examinations that have emerged. Therefore, there have been "three highs", "five highs" and even "eight highs" inspections.

常见慢性病的检查项目解析

1,Blood test

Blood routine refers to the examination of blood conditions and diseases by observing changes in the number and morphological distribution of blood cells. With the development of modernization and automation of inspections, routine blood tests are now completed by machine inspections. Routine blood tests include red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), white blood cell differential count and platelet (PLT), etc., which can usually be divided into three major systems, namely red blood cell system, white blood cell system and platelet system.

The first step in understanding blood routine: Are my indicators within the normal range?

Understanding the blood routine second step: what are those items?

Understanding the third step of blood routine: abnormal indicators, which potential hazards may be implied?

What needs to be reminded is that most of the indicators used in medicine are a range, not a fixed value. This range is called the normal reference value of the inspection index. However, sometimes, there may be healthy people with 1%~5% who can exceed this so-called normal reference value. An abnormal result displayed on the test sheet may actually be normal. Moreover, the values of many indicators vary from person to person and need to be dynamically detected. It is possible that some indicators have changed compared with the original ones, but the test results are still in the normal range given. In this way, the test results are normal but problems may have occurred.

Common blood diseases in routine blood tests: iron deficiency anemia, aplastic anemia, thalassemia, leukemia, etc. In addition to the above four diseases, it may also indicate other blood diseases, such as immune thrombocytopenia, polycythemia vera, and essential thrombocythemia. At the same time, routine blood tests are also an important basis for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases, such as white blood cells. An increase often indicates a bacterial infection, and a decrease in white blood cells and/or thrombocytopenia often indicates a viral infection.

2, Urine routine examination

Under normal circumstances, we can do a self-test based on the color of urine; if the condition is severe or unwell, it is necessary to go to the hospital for a routine urine test, which will be more professional. The indicators on the urine routine test sheet include: pH (pH), urine specific gravity (SG), urobilinogen (URO), occult blood (BLD), white blood cells (WBC), urine protein (PRO), urine glucose (GLU), bile Red pigment (BIL), ketone body (KET), urine red blood cell (RBC), urine color (COL).

Let's look at a few key projects:

(1) Urine protein

In routine urine items, urine protein and occult blood occupy absolute significance in routine urine tests. When urine protein and occult blood appear +, +++, ++++, in most cases, it indicates that the kidney has been damaged and needs Active and timely treatment, so as to prevent minor illnesses from developing to serious illnesses, to uremia.

Urine protein: Some are physiological proteinuria, but "+" mostly means abnormalities caused by kidney or systemic diseases. You need to do two things: first, do a 24-hour protein quantitative test; second, look for the kidneys Doctor of Internal Medicine.

Physiological proteinuria

  • Functional proteinuria: Proteinuria caused by strenuous exercise, high fever, cold, nervous tension, etc. The protein quality is generally not more than a "+", mostly due to renal ischemia, renal vasospasm or congestion leading to increased glomerular permeability To
  • Orthostatic proteinuria: When the spine is convex or standing for a long time, the pressure of the renal vein causes the renal venous pressure to rise. It is caused by malabsorption of protein filtered through the glomerulus, and the qualitative test of postural proteinuria is sometimes as high as "++". This type of proteinuria can disappear after bed rest, and it is more common in children and young people. Some cases are a reflection of early nephritis;
  • Ingestive proteinuria: Such as injecting small molecular weight protein or ingesting a large amount of protein at a time.

Pathological proteinuria:

  • Glomerular diseases: such as acute glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis, allergic purpura nephritis, diabetic nephropathy, etc.;
  • Renal tubular diseases: such as active pyelonephritis, interstitial nephritis, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, bismuth. Poisoning and application of certain drugs, etc.;
  • When kidney disease involves both glomeruli and tubules, both low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight proteins in the urine are greatly increased, which is an indication of renal insufficiency, which is seen in chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, etc.;
  • Severe urinary tract infection, acute hemolytic disease, multiple myeloma, macroglobulinemia, etc.

(2) Urine Glucose

Urinary glucose: When a "+" appears, first find an endocrinologist to check blood glucose; however, some people have normal blood glucose but abnormal urine glucose. We call it renal diabetes or stress diabetes.

Physiological diabetes: Physiological diabetes is caused by the increase of glomerular filtration and the decrease of the relative absorption of renal tubules. It is seen in a large amount of carbohydrate ingestion, intravenous glucose injection, mental hypertension, emotional agitation, pregnancy, etc.

Pathological diabetes: ① Diabetes. ② Renal diabetes: found in familial diabetes, chronic nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, neonatal diabetes, etc. ③Others: hyperthyroidism, adrenal tumors, brain trauma, cerebrovascular accidents, pituitary tumors, acute myocardial infarction, etc. may also be positive for urine glucose. False positive or false negative urine glucose test: urine is affected by strong oxidants, hydrogen peroxide, etc. False-positive urine glucose can be produced when contaminated.c A large amount of salicylate, high specific gravity urine, urine ketones >400 mg/L or long-term specimens can cause false-negative urine glucose. Special attention should be paid to the false negatives caused by high-concentration vitamin C on glucose. .

(3) Urine crystals

Urine crystals: It can be seen in patients with severe gout, jaundice, and oxalate stones. The specific reasons are analyzed in detail.

Physiological Crystal, Such as calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium phosphate crystals; pathological crystals, such as bilirubin crystals, cystine crystals, leucine crystals, tyrosine crystals, cholesterol crystals, radioactive crystals, sulfonamides crystals, etc.

Simple self-test: The relationship between urine color and health

Colorless and transparent: Drink too much water. For ordinary people, completely colorless and transparent urine does not exist, but people do not seem to have a color, but when checked under the instrument, there will be a certain color. However, drinking too much water does cause the urine color to fade, so there is no need to worry too much.

Light yellow: It's normal, and the amount of water to drink is also appropriate. The color of urine in normal people is pale yellow, and the pigment mainly comes from ureaflavin and a small amount of urobilin and urorubin. They are the product of body metabolism. This color represents normal body function.

Bright yellow: It's normal, don't think about it. This argument is still very scientific. Normal urine is generally pale yellow or bright yellow.

Dark yellow: Drink less water or liver problems. Drinking less water results in some waste products in the urine that are not effectively diluted and appear dark yellow. It is also possible that there is a problem with the liver, leading to increased bilirubin. It is recommended to observe for about a week first. If the dark yellow urine continues to appear, you need to go to the hospital for routine urinalysis immediately.

Amber or honey: The body is too dehydrated, drink some water quickly. Honey color means that the color of urine is darker than dark yellow, which has a certain relationship with drinking less water. You can drink more water to adjust it. If this happens for a long time, it is recommended to go to a regular medical institution for professional inspection.

Syrupy brown: There may be liver disease, or severe dehydration. When the body is dehydrated, it may cause the urine to become sticky. If the urine appears syrupy brown, it is recommended to go to the hospital for examination. You may have liver disease.

red: Signs of kidney disease, tumors, urinary tract infections, prostate problems, and possibly even mercury poisoning. This statement is somewhat scientific. Red urine is a common problem. Among patients admitted to the urology department, 80% has red urine. Among them, one of the common symptoms of urethral stones is hematuria, which is more common in men. Of course, if you eat dragon fruit recently, it will also cause your urine to appear red.

Orange: Too little water, food coloring, or liver or bile duct problems. If the urine is yellow and orange, it may be caused by drinking too little water, and the chance of liver problems is higher. Liu Guangrui believes that the orange color is the result of kidney fluid concentration. It is recommended to observe first, do not drink water at night and drink plenty of water during the day.

Blue or green: A rare genetic disease can cause urine to turn blue or green. It may also be caused by certain bacteria infecting the urinary tract, food pigments, or drug reactions. Blue and green urine do exist, but they are rare. They are usually affected by diet. Pigments in food are excreted with urine, and bacterial infections are not ruled out. People who have such conditions in urine are recommended to observe after 3 days. If the situation has not changed, go to the hospital for an examination.

purple: May represent a rare disease-porphyria. Urine may appear purple, because urine, as a human excrement, may be affected by diet and may also be due to drug reactions. However, it has not been received from such patients because of the special color. It is recommended that urine has this People with similar colors should go to the hospital for examination in time.

Foamy: If the diet is too high in protein, or liver disease, if it persists, go to the hospital. The formation of foam is due to the increase in the surface tension of urine, and it is also related to the excess protein in the body. It is very likely that there is a problem with the liver. It may also be related to the prostate secretion. There are more impurities in the secretion, which leads to the appearance of foam. It is recommended that those who have such a situation should observe for a week first, and if they continue to appear, they can go to the hospital.

3, Routine stool inspection

Routine inspections are necessary inspection items for judging human health.

Routine tests can be used to find out whether the digestive tract has bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, early detection of gastroenteritis and liver disease, and can also be used as a diagnostic screening for digestive tract tumors. Routine stool tests include checking the presence of red blood cells and white blood cells in the stool, bacterial sensitivity test, occult blood test (OB), and inspection of worm eggs, etc. The highlights are as follows:

(1)HemorrhoidsIt is the most common cause of blood in the stool, which is manifested as dripping or spurting blood after stool. The blood generally does not mix with the stool. Rectal cancer can also have blood in the stool. Rectal cancer is more common in middle-aged and elderly people. The blood mixes with stool, and there may be pus and mucus. Black tarry stools, the upper gastrointestinal or small intestine bleeding stays in the intestinal cavity for a long time. After the destruction of red blood cells, hemoglobin combines with sulfide in the intestine to form iron sulfide. This compound makes the stool black. The color is like tar, so it is called tar-like stool. It is common in upper gastrointestinal bleeding, such as gastroduodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, biliary bleeding and so on.

(2) There may be in the stoolRed blood cells, white blood cells, parasite eggs, etc.Wait, it is invisible to the naked eye, and it is necessary to use a microscope to check the stool, which is one of the work of the laboratory doctor. Tumor cells: In patients with colorectal cancer, cancer cells may necrosis and fall off, and cancer cells may be found in the stool.

(3)Symbols on the report sheetrepresents what?

"↑" means that the indicator is higher than the normal range;

"↓" means that the indicator is lower than the normal range;

"﹢" means positive;

"﹣" means negative;

"±" represents weak positive;

The number of "﹢" represents a quantitative change, such as "," and "﹢﹢", indicating that the degree of positivity is gradually increasing.

Secondly, there are "three highs" inspections;

"Three highs" are the collective term for hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. What inspections are generally required?

常见慢性病的检查项目解析
  1. Blood pressure monitoring: In addition to long-term medication to control blood pressure levels, hypertensive patients also need to monitor blood pressure regularly to understand the development of the patient's condition.
  • Blood sugar check: Blood glucose check is mainly for patients with hyperglycemia, including fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and other methods. Generally speaking, as long as it is not severe hyperglycemia, medication control and life conditioning can effectively alleviate the condition.
  • Lipid check: Blood lipid check only requires blood test. Hyperlipidemia is also the most easily reversible type of disease among the "three highs". It is similar to patients with hyperglycemia. Except for severe hyperlipidemia, most patients can reverse their condition through life conditioning and appropriate exercise.
  • Cardiovascular examination: Patients with "three highs" are most likely to get cardiovascular disease, so we must pay attention to regular cardiovascular examinations. The main examination methods include electrocardiogram, myocardial enzyme spectrum examination, and cardiac color Doppler ultrasound.
  • Arteriosclerosis detection: Patients with "three highs" will age faster than ordinary people, and they are prone to plaque, vascular stenosis, blockage and other important factors that cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, patients with "three highs" should pay attention to arteriosclerosis examination.
  • Carotid ultrasound: Carotid artery ultrasound is mainly an examination method for cerebrovascular diseases. Carotid ultrasound can directly observe the conditions in the carotid artery wall, which can assist in diagnosis, the degree of carotid artery stenosis and the nature of plaque.

The three highs, from the perspective of mainstream Chinese and Western medicine, are all diseases that cannot be cured after diagnosis. Alternative medicine has played a huge role in clinical medicine for more than 20 years: the vast majority of three highs patients can be cured. Especially in alternative medicine, nutrition medicine, energy medicine, etc., through comprehensive programs and treatments, the disease is first effectively alleviated to a complete cure.

Finally, the "Five Highs" "Eight High" Inspection.

(1), high uric acid becomes the fourth highest

Hyperuric acid is a metabolic disease caused by the metabolism of a substance called purine in the human body, resulting in an increase in uric acid in the blood. Hyperuricemia (HUA) means that under the condition of a normal purine diet, the fasting blood uric acid level of men is higher than 420μmol/L on two different days and that of women is higher than 360μmol/L, which is called hyperuricemia.

Uric acid is the final metabolite of human purine compounds. Disorders of purine metabolism lead to hyperuricemia. The prevalence of this disease is affected by many factors, which are related to heredity, gender, age, lifestyle, eating habits, drug treatment, and degree of economic development. According to reports on the prevalence of hyperuricemia in various places in recent years, there are currently about 120 million people with hyperuricemia in China, accounting for about 10% of the total population. The high incidence age is middle-aged and elderly men and postmenopausal women, but in recent years there is a trend of younger generation. . Studies have found that hyperuricemia increases the risk of death from coronary heart disease with 50%.

Usually for patients with a history of gout, blood uric acid should be controlled below 00umol/L to ensure the slow dissolution of tophi. For patients without tophi, blood uric acid should be controlled below 360umol/L to avoid repeated attacks of gouty arthritis. For patients with refractory gout, the control of uric acid should be strictly kept below 240umol/L. Since blood uric acid also has a certain physiological function, the lower the blood uric acid, the better. Generally, the blood uric acid should not be less than 200umol/L.

(2), gout and hyperuricemia

Gout is a group of diseases caused by purine metabolism disorders. Its clinical features are hyperuricemia and the resulting recurrent gouty acute arthritis, tophi deposits, tophitic chronic arthritis and joint deformities, which are often involved The kidneys cause chronic interstitial nephritis and the formation of uric acid kidney stones. The disease can be divided into two categories: primary and secondary. A small number of primary patients are caused by enzyme defects, often accompanied by hyperlipidemia, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Secondary cases can be caused by many reasons such as kidney disease, blood disease, and drugs.

It is more common in men, the ratio of male to female is about 20:1. Females rarely get the disease, and if it happens, it mostly occurs after menopause. Many cases have been reported abroad with positive family history. The course of gout is quite long, and those who do not involve the kidneys have a good prognosis after effective prevention and treatment, but improper prevention and treatment can easily lead to serious consequences such as joint deformities, kidney stones, and kidney damage. The prognosis of patients with renal insufficiency is poor.

常见慢性病的检查项目解析

(3), the fifth highest: high homocysteine

In addition to hyperuricemia increasing the risk of death from coronary heart disease in 50%, the study also found that high homocysteine is one of the “culprits” leading to ischemic stroke in China. Therefore, independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease have changed from the "three highs" in the past to the current "five highs".

About 60 years ago, an autopsy of children who died of hereditary homocysteinuria revealed extensive arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis in their bodies, suggesting that homocysteine (Hcy) causes atherosclerosis. Like hardening.

Hcy is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid, which is mainly derived from methionine in the diet (meat, cheese and other protein foods). It is an important intermediate product in the metabolism of methionine and cysteine. The transsulfide pathway is metabolized and maintains the body's two major functions of methylation and anti-oxidation, but it does not participate in protein synthesis. The concentration of Hcy in the body shows whether the chemical condition of the body is normal, especially the nutritional status of B vitamins, immune system function and brain condition. Biochemical studies believe that elevated Hcy affects the function and structure of cysteine and lysine, weakens the function of the three main structural proteins of the artery (collagen, elastin, and polysaccharide protein), and inhibits their growth. The increase of the concentration of Hcy in the body can reduce the function of methylation and anti-oxidation in the body, which affects almost every organ of the human body.

It has been confirmed that high Hcy is associated with the onset of a variety of chronic diseases. Hcy directly or indirectly causes damage to vascular endothelial cells, promotes the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, affects the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, enhances platelet function, and promotes thrombosis. Therefore, it is directly or indirectly related to more than 50 diseases such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetic complications, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and malignant tumors. The study also found that the value of Hcy is a good risk predictor: it can predict the risk of heart disease or stroke more accurately, predict Alzheimer’s better than genes, and can predict the risk of fractures in the elderly, and even Tell you the current rate of aging.

The international consensus holds that the Hcy in the human body should be less than 6.3μmol/L, and people who exceed this value will enter the high-risk area of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in people who reach or exceed 10μmol/L is twice that of normal people. Statistics show that only about 10% people are safe in the world.

A study by the University of Bergen in Norway showed that people with normal Hcy have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease by 80%, stroke risk by 82%, Alzheimer's risk by 50%, and cancer risk by 33%. Studies have shown that Chinese 75% hypertensive patients are "H-type hypertension" with elevated Hcy, and the heart events of H-type hypertension patients are 5 times that of patients with simple hypertension and 25-30 times that of healthy people. , The risk of stroke is 12 times that of healthy people. The "American Journal of Medicine" published a large research report led by David Ward: There is a causal relationship between the level of Hcy in the body and the possibility of cardiovascular disease. Every 5umol/L increase in Hcy increases the stroke by 59%, and every 3umol/L decrease in Hcy can reduce the risk of stroke by about 24%. A Japanese study showed that: Hcy>14umol/L, doubled the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease. A Norwegian study for the elderly revealed that for every 5umol/L increase in Hcy, the mortality rate increased by 50%.

Hcy is mainly derived from methionine in the diet. In the metabolic process in the body, B vitamins, especially folic acid, are needed. Therefore, controlling the intake of methionine and increasing the B vitamins or folic acid can effectively reduce the concentration of Hcy. The increase of Hcy affects the structural proteins of the artery, so reducing the concentration of Hcy and repairing damaged proteins is a long-term chronic process. Many studies have found that after controlling diet and supplementing with folic acid treatment, although the level of Hcy cannot be reduced in a short time, the incidence of stroke is reduced by 1/4.

Therefore, it is recommended that adults undergoing annual physical examinations should be screened for homocysteine. Those who are over 45 years old, have a history of hypertension, have a family history of coronary heart disease, stroke, eat more meat, take various protein powder preparations, and more Attention should be paid to the level of homocysteine. Once it increases, under the guidance of a physician, limit the intake of methionine, supplement B vitamins or folic acid, and control homocysteine to a reasonable level. Vitamin B12 helps to produce hemoglobin, increase nerve strength and regulate homocysteine levels.

(4) The sixth highest: high cholesterol.

Cholesterol is divided into high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density cholesterol. The former has a protective effect on the cardiovascular system and is usually called "good cholesterol." "Bad Cholesterol". In fact, modern research has found that there are no so-called "good cholesterol" and "bad cholesterol". Only oxidized cholesterol is the main cause of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

The blood cholesterol content is between 140-199 milligrams per unit, which is a relatively normal cholesterol level. The reference value of high-density lipoprotein is 0.94-2.0mmol/L, and the reduction has clinical significance, which is seen in coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, liver damage, nephrotic syndrome, etc.

The reference value of low-density lipoprotein is 2.07-3.12mmol/L, 3.15-3.61mmol/L is a marginal increase, ≥3.64mmol/L is an increase, the increase of LDL is positively correlated with the incidence of coronary heart disease.

There are two units for measuring cholesterol, one unit is mmol/l, and a total cholesterol measurement of 5.2 mmol/L or less is normal. The other unit is mg/dl, and a total cholesterol measurement of 200 mg/dl or less is normal. In fact, the cholesterol levels of different races and individuals are different. Some people are higher than normal and are healthy. Therefore, the standard of health cannot rely on a single test data.

常见慢性病的检查项目解析

(5) Seventh highest: high insulin resistance.

Insulin resistance, also called insulin resistance, refers to the phenomenon that fat cells, muscle cells, and liver cells do not respond to normal concentrations of insulin, that is, these cells require higher insulin concentrations to respond to insulin. In fact, if you are a diabetic, injecting insulin will continue to stimulate your body and aggravate your body’s insulin resistance. The amount of medicine used will increase and insulin resistance will become stronger. Therefore, it is the insulin itself that causes insulin resistance.

In fat cells, insulin resistance leads to the hydrolysis of stored triglycerides, which in turn increases the content of free fatty acids in the plasma. In muscle cells, insulin resistance reduces the absorption of glucose; in liver cells, it reduces glucose reserves, both of which together lead to an increase in blood sugar levels. High insulin and high sugar content in plasma caused by insulin resistance often leads to metabolic syndrome, gout, and type 2 diabetes. Hyperinsulinemia is the root cause of insulin resistance, diabetes, and obesity.

Insulin resistance is not a complete pathological concept. It can also exist under specific physiological conditions in normal people, such as adolescence and mid- to late pregnancy. With the onset of puberty, children's insulin sensitivity decreases, and it can return to normal at the end of puberty. The cause of insulin resistance in puberty is still unknown, and it may be related to the large secretion of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Insulin resistance during pregnancy is due to the large secretion of hormones or factors such as cortisol, progesterone and tumor necrosis factor-α during pregnancy, which antagonize the effect of insulin. Therefore, maternal tissues reduce the intake of blood sugar and maintain a stable blood sugar level for the fetus. Growth needs.

In addition, insulin resistance is also seen in the elderly. However, whether insulin resistance is a physiological phenomenon of old age or secondary to lifestyle changes is still unclear. The elderly have reduced activity and common central obesity. Many elderly people also take various drugs including thiazide diuretics for a long time. These factors can lead to insulin resistance and promote the occurrence of type 2 diabetes.

Measurement methods: Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) technology. It is currently the internationally recognized gold standard for evaluating insulin resistance. In people with normal glucose metabolism, when the plasma insulin concentration reaches more than 50 mU/L, the body's liver glucose output is almost completely suppressed. If the glucose utilization rate is lower than 4.93 mg·kg-1·min-1, it can be judged as insulin resistance. It is recognized internationally as the gold standard for evaluating insulin resistance and can be applied to all research populations.

常见慢性病的检查项目解析

(6) The eighth highest: high body fat rate.

The body fat rate of men higher than 25% and women higher than 35% are obese, which will affect the body shape and health. However, adult men usually recommend 14-25% for body fat, and adult women recommend 21-31% for body fat. Beyond this range, even if the weight or BMI is low, it can be classified as obese. If the body fat exceeds the standard, the body fat rate above 32% or even 35% can be regarded as serious obesity. For women over 50 years old and men over 55 years old, the standard value of body fat percentage can be increased by 2%~3% every 5 years old. Obesity increases the risk of various diseases. Such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, etc.

Wikipedia calculation formula:

Body fat percentage = 1.2 × BMI + 0.23 × age -5.4-10.8 × gender (male is 1, female is 0); BMI = weight ÷ (height × height).

Waist circumference weight calculation method:

The best time to measure is in the morning, preferably just after you wake up from adequate sleep (7-8 hours), at which time the measurement data such as weight and waist circumference are the most accurate.

The calculation formula of female body fat:

Parameter a = waist circumference × 0.74; parameter b = weight × 0.082 + 34.89; total body fat weight = a – b; body fat rate = (total body fat weight ÷ weight) × 100%;

The calculation formula of male body fat:

Parameter a = waist circumference × 0.74; parameter b = weight × 0.082 + 44.74; total body fat weight = a – b; body fat percentage = (total body fat weight ÷ weight) × 100%.

A more accurate way to measure body fat percentage:

A. Body fat measurement at the same time (for example, just before getting up, before going to bed. For girls, it is also necessary to consider the menstrual cycle; it is recommended to always measure before menstruation or just after menstruation);

B. Do not drink, eat or exercise for two hours before the test;

C. Do not carry any metal on your body; or bring the same metal every time (but small necklaces and earrings generally do not have much influence on the body fat rate detection)

D. Use the same machine every time.

After you meet the above four points, it does not mean that your measured body fat rate is 100% error-free, but we have reduced the error as much as possible.

Of course, it’s simplerFinger pinch method

Relax your abdomen, place your hand next to your belly button, spread your thumb and index finger about 3cm away, and pinch all the fat under this 3cm. Observe how much you can pinch. Usually 1-1.5CM is qualified. Children's shoes above 1.5CM: boys' body fat is above 20%, and girls' body fat rate is above 25%.

常见慢性病的检查项目解析

Final conclusion

Laboratory medicine, also known as laboratory medicine, laboratory tests, and medical tests, is known as one of the five branches of medicine (preventive medicine, laboratory medicine, nutritional medicine, clinical medicine, and rehabilitation medicine). Laboratory medicine mainly uses various tools in the laboratory to assist in the evaluation of various indicators of health and physiological functions in preventive medicine and nutritional medicine; in clinical medicine and rehabilitation medicine, diagnosis, evaluation, treatment and tracking of diseases.

Laboratory medicine is also an important part of medical research, and its own development and application have brought great contributions and empirical evidence to medical progress. But inspection is only a means, not an end. Healthy and longevity cannot rely solely on inspections, but as much as possible in the inspections, discover potential problems, and use nutritional medicine as much as possible to correct or repair bad life or eating habits, so as to be healthy from the inside to the outside. For more professional nutritional medicine repair methods, please pay attention to our blog post updates.

*** Every article has been carefully written, edited and checked by Huizhou experts. Please trust the experts’ opinions and suggestions.If you have any questions, please email info@chelsea98.com ***

Huizhou Million Dragon Health Project Dr. Kyle Long, registered dietitian, registered health manager,-sincere, clear, efficient, FAH financial and health quotient education Chelsea98.com

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