米面分类与选择技巧

— Dr. Long Chelsea98.com Huizhou Education_Millions of Dragons of Great Health

Rice and noodles are one of the three main sources of energy food (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) for human beings.

It usually includes rice and flour, but in fact, there are many specific types and varieties (carbohydrate also includes high-starch roots, fruits, and beans in addition to rice and noodles; high-carbohydrate seaweeds, mushrooms, etc.) , Water cereals, nuts). Learning how to choose the original rice noodles suitable for your physique, as well as matching and cooking, are very beneficial to your health; on the other hand, there are many processed rice noodles on the market, and friends who like to buy processed cooked rice noodles need to understand the health of them. common sense. This article is divided into the following sections.

1. Rice

1, The type of rice

  1. Divide by variety: In addition to the millet and barley eaten during the detox period, other varieties include: indica rice, japonica rice, glutinous rice; from the color: white rice, red rice, green rice, purple red rice, blood glutinous, black rice, purple black rice; from the processing technology Top points: brown rice, embryonic rice (live bud rice), polished white rice;
  • Subspecies of millet (cold): Yellow millet, red millet, green millet, white millet, black millet, glutinous millet; subspecies of barley (temper): barley (Chinese barley), barley (barley), red barley, refined white barley, pearl barley ;
  • Subspecies of rice: Indica rice, japonica rice, glutinous rice; the amylose content of japonica rice is generally around 16-23%, and that of indica rice is around 22-28%; generally speaking, rice with high amylopectin content tends to have a sticky, sweet and sticky texture. Rice with high amylose content tends to show a dry, hard and flat taste; any kind of rice has different colors; glutinous rice (also called glutinous rice) can be divided into white and purple, and white glutinous rice can be divided into long glutinous rice and round glutinous rice. The amylopectin content of glutinous rice can be as high as 99%; all rice is a flat food, suitable for all people, the difference is only in the cooking method, the amount of water added, and the added vegetables, meat, fish and shrimp and other auxiliary materials;
  • Other types:
  • Sago (Temperature): Processed rice. It is made like this: take the pith of the palm tree sacred wood, use the ordinary method of making starch, and make the starch obtained through the processes of crushing, sieving and filtering, repeated rinsing, precipitation, and drying. When the starch is semi-dried, shake it into fine granules and then dry it, so that it becomes sago. Generally used as soup, pastry, pudding, zongzi, etc.
  • Yellow rice (warm): also known as millet, millet, yellow rice, summer millet, yellow millet, there is a difference between glutinous and non-glutinous. Waxy millet is mostly used as alcohol wine, and non-glutinous millet is called 穄. Mainly eaten, it is the fruit of millet shelled, which is larger than millet, light yellow in color, and sticky when cooked. The powder made from it is the most delicious yellow rice cake.Note the difference: glutinous millet and glutinous yellow millet.
  • Sorghum rice (cold): It is the fruit of sorghum after husking, which can be red and white. Red sorghum, also known as wine sorghum, is mainly used for wine making. Famous wines such as Moutai and Wuliangye are all made of red sorghum. The white sorghum rice is used for food, and it is generally consumed for porridge.
  • Amaranth rice (coolness): black, rich in protein, fat, glycolipid, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and other minerals, as well as melanin, oxalate, betaine and other secondary elements, with good nutrition value. Its protein content is up to 20%, which is much higher than rice, millet, corn, barley, wheat, buckwheat, millet, millet, etc., especially containing a lot of amino acids; lipid content is 6%, higher than the other grains; carbohydrate content is 62.7%, which can be transformed The heat energy required by the human body; its calcium content is 160 mg/100 g, which is much higher than the above-mentioned other grains, which is beneficial to the absorption and utilization of vitamin D; the potassium content is 600 mg/100 g, which is only lower than the content of 1200 mg/100 g The ratio of potassium to sodium is 600:1; the iron content is 9.4mg/100g, which can improve the activity of various enzymes and is a component of human blood.
  • "Rice" that is not rice:
    • Bamboo rice is the seed of bamboo. Generally, it takes 50-100 years for bamboo to bloom. The flowering of bamboo means that its life is exhausted. Only the seeds are left to reproduce, but not all bamboos can produce bamboo rice when they bloom. Flowering and fruiting of bamboo is a relatively rare phenomenon, and flowering and fruiting of bamboo is a relatively rare phenomenon, so history books often record this phenomenon. Bamboo rice is not easy to obtain, so it is smeared with a layer of mystery. According to legend, bamboo rice is the food of the phoenix. In ancient times, there was a saying that the phoenix "non-indus and non-industry, non-bamboo inhabitants".
  • Nepal rock rice, also known as stone grass, is a rare wild rice. It grows mainly on Lhotse Peak at the border of China and Nepal. It is nourished by rain and dew all the year round. It is an ancient relict plant with yellow-green color and rich fragrance. , The rice fragrance is slightly lighter. Because of its special growth location and extremely scarce production, it is not known to the world.
  • Wild rice, Zheng Xuan's note in "Zhou Li·Tian Guan" is: "Hemp, millet, Chinese scorpion, wheat, bean also." "Zamio, carving Hu also." Chinese wild rice is a perennial aquatic herb of the Gramineae family. There are plump tender stems, also called "Zizania shoots" and "Zizania shoots". The seeds that bloom in summer and autumn are called "Wild Rice" or "Diao Hu Mi". Rice cooked with wild rice is called "diaohu rice." As early as 2000 years ago, wild rice was a staple food.
  • American wild rice, also known as wild black rice: mainly grows in the Lake Superior area at the junction of Canada and the United States. As early as hundreds of years ago, local Indians took this kind of aquatic plant with a unique nutty taste as one of the main nutritious foods. The shell of wild rice does not need to be polished, the color is black and bright, and it looks like a wooden shuttle. Its dietary fiber is much higher than that of rice. It is a rare health food and can be called the king of "rice".
  • Ge Xian Mi, Ge Xian Mi is a kind of algae, also known as water fungus, Tian Xian rice, loosestrife and so on. Gexian rice is very rare in the world, and the main production areas are concentrated in China. It is more famous in Hubei Hefeng, Sichuan and other places. It can be called a must in China and rare in the world. Ge Xian rice is commonly found on rocks in rivers and streams or in rice fields. It has no roots, stems, or leaves, and floats in the water, so it is also called "Tian Xian Rice" or "Tian Xian Cai". Many cells are connected into a rosary-like group, the color is blue-green, the particles are round, exquisite and translucent, comparable to pearls. The collected and dried grains are round, and the size is larger than rice grains after being cooked, so it is called "Gexian rice".
  • Ginsenosia rice, commonly known as snow lotus seeds, saponins, and saponins, is the fruit of acacia. Mainly produced in Yunnan and Guizhou, it is a precious pure natural green nourishing food that harmonizes the functions of human organs. The total energy of saponified rice is similar to that of ordinary rice. The difference is that the soluble dietary fiber, that is, the content of plant gum is very rich, which is somewhat similar to oats in cereals. The saponified rice swells in volume and has a sticky taste after being boiled. The reason is that the vegetable gum is like a sponge when it is cooked. It will continue to absorb water and swell, making porridge, soup, soup, etc. sticky.
  • Chicken head rice, that is, fresh gorgon, also known as water chicken head, chicken head bud, chicken mouth lotus, thorn lotus. It is a kind of angiosperm in the Nymphaeaceae family. The fruit is spherical, with a protruding tip, like a chicken head. It has the functions of invigorating the spleen and qi, strengthening the kidney and astringent essence. The ancient medicine book says that it has the effect of "feeding for babies not to grow old, and for the elderly to eat for prolonging their lives". Gorgon is divided into South Gorgon and North Gorgon. Beiqian is widely distributed throughout the country, with spikes all over the stems and leaves, and the fruits are small. The South Gorgon is cultivated for thousands of years. Except for the sharp thorns on the back of the leaves, the thorns on the stem and fruit have disappeared. The fruit is several times larger than the North Gorgon. It can only be grown in Nantang, Suzhou Fengmen. , People call it Suqian.
  • Maize, an annual herbaceous plant of the genus Gramineae, is originally produced in Central and South America and is now cultivated all over the world; there are yellow maize, white maize, waxy maize, fruit maize, etc. Maize is the world's most productive crop, and its planting area and total output are second only to rice and wheat; it is one of the world's major genetically modified crops. Corn tastes sweet and can be used in all kinds of dishes, such as corn bran, corn juice, etc. In addition to being an important food crop and fodder crop, it is also the main raw material for industrial alcohol and shochu.

2, Four kinds of famous rice

  1. Northeast rice: starch content is higher than 80%, protein is less than 7%; the grains are full, the texture is hard, the color is clear and transparent; the rice grains are short and round, and the aspect ratio is about 1.6:1. High viscosity, soft mouthfeel, light fragrance and sweet taste; high water content, moderate amylose content; belongs to japonica rice, using new rice to cook porridge, it is easy to produce "porridge oil" floating on the porridge, so that Rice porridge has a special taste.
  • Thai Fragrant Rice: Jasmine Fragrant Rice. The rice grains are long and slender, with crystal clear appearance, smooth grains, slightly curved rice body, soft and smooth taste; the average length is not less than 7 mm, and the average width is not less than 3 mm; the viscosity is weak, easy to absorb water, swell, and the taste is soft and waxy , Chewy, scattered rice grains, full aroma; easy to break when cooking porridge, lack of oil, not sticky; low water content, there will not be too much water overflow during the cooking process, can maintain the integrity of the rice, dry and fragrant in the mouth ; The starch content is about 70% and the protein is 8%.
  • Japanese round rice: short rice, round and short rice-shaped, especially famous for its soft and sticky pearl rice; it is not too sticky, not soft, and the grains are distinct after cooking; Japanese round rice is best for making rice balls; the most Koshihikari (Koshihikari): The planting area accounted for 36.2% of the rice planting area in Japan in 2016; Koshihikari rice is round and plump, has high gloss, low amylose and protein content, high viscosity, and high sweetness.
  • Live bud rice: The live bud rice processing technology developed by Heilongjiang can make the rice reach the first level of whiteness and leave the embryo up to 85% (nutrients in the embryo account for 66% of the rice), and increase the nutrition of polished rice by more than ten times. Live sprouts increase the nutrient utilization of rice from 5% to more than 60% without changing the taste; it is divided into maternal and infant live sprouts, long-grain fragrant live sprouts, and pearl live sprouts.

3, Rice for European and American markets

Rice in the European and American markets is generally classified according to Short Grain, Medium Grain and Long Grain:

  1. Short Grain: The first category is Nissan's sushi rice, that is, sushi rice. The rice grains are very round and relatively sticky after being cooked. Of course, they are not as sticky as sticky rice. The second type of short grain is Arborio rice of Spanish origin. The advantage is also called Calasparra rice|Bomba rice|Paella rice|Risotto rice. The rice grains are larger than the common Asian rice types. The third category is round glutinous rice, which everyone is familiar with. It is mainly used for grinding into rice noodles, zongzi, rice cakes, rice wine and so on.
  • Medium Grain: Mainly Botan Calrose (rich flower, brocade rice and national treasure) California rice. This is one of the top three rices with low arsenic content in the world (the other two are Thai jasmine rice and basmati rice). The scent is soft and the taste is soft. Whatever you do.
  • Long Grain: Mainly from Southeast Asia, such as Thai Jasmine Rice and Basmati Rice. Generally, the longer the rice grains, the stronger the fragrance and the worse the stickiness of Jasmine Rice. But Jasmine Rice has not greatly sacrificed its viscosity and elasticity while maintaining its fragrance. So although the cooked rice is not as chewy as sushi rice, it is quite balanced. Basmati rice is very special. It has a very strong fragrance and even steals the limelight from the main course, so it is usually paired with dishes with heavier flavors, such as curry.

Colored rice in European and American markets:

  1. Brown Rice: The process is stopped after shelling and before polishing, so it retains more nutrients, but the taste will not be so sweet, and the taste will be more rough. The "Genmi" we often see actually means this. If there is no special reputation, the general brown rice is medium-grain rice which is "brown".
  • Parboiled Rice: Golden brown rice, generally translucent, with medium grain and long grain. The description is "parboiled XXX". This is actually a short-term fumigation of ordinary rice, and the starch in the rice grains has been partially denatured, so that the cooking time can be greatly reduced.
  • Red Rice: Red rice, originally from Southeast Asia, is not very sticky, and the taste is a bit between the rich flower, Thai fragrant rice and purple rice. Sometimes it is labeled as Red Cargo Rice, and generally refers to red rice. The processing method is similar to the brown rice mentioned earlier, but only the outer rice husk is removed, while the Bran part is retained.
  • Purple Rcie (Sticky): Purple glutinous rice. Purple rice is generally glutinous. Purple Rcie is made from this. It can also be used to wrap rice dumplings.
  • Black Rice: Black rice is generally not waxy. After being cooked, the harder outer shell will burst and make it squeaky. The taste is slightly bitter and astringent, but the nutritional value is very rich.
  • Wild Rice: Wild rice does not actually belong to rice, but a kind of aquatic plant. However, since the seeds are similar to rice and have a similar taste, it is called wild rice. Wild rice has a strong earthy smell, and it usually needs to be used with other condiments or a small amount of garnish.

2. Flour

1,       Types of wheat

Wheat, monocotyledonous plant, grass family. Annual or biennial herbaceous plant. According to the sowing date, it is divided into winter wheat and spring wheat.

The grains mainly make flour. However, in addition to wheat, cereals include barley, oats, quinoa, buckwheat, rye, barley and so on. The real flour is mainly wheat.

2, The classification of flour

1) Pasta is divided into four categories: sweet, salty, spicy and sour;

Noodles are made by adding seasonings, sauces, vegetables or meat to the soup or sauce, while the baked or grilled pasta (scones, moon cakes, biscuits, pastries, etc.) are filled with various fillings inside or on the surface. Ingredients; there are about a thousand kinds of Chinese noodles, with different tastes; the principle of selection is only according to your own taste, it is recommended not to be too salty, you can match it with yogurt and fruits and vegetables;

2) Steamed noodles (soup noodles, soup dumplings, steamed buns, steamed buns, noodles, cat ears, wontons, glutinous rice balls, rice dumplings, water floats, etc.), suitable for the elderly, children, people with poor gastrointestinal tract, postoperative recovery, and Cold body

3) Baked or roasted pasta is suitable for cold constitution with good gastrointestinal function, but the baking or roasting temperature should not be too high. Once it is browned or crispy, there will be deteriorating ingredients; it is recommended to be once a week, not to be greedy; Cakes, biscuits, moon cakes, baked cakes, potato chips, bread, hot dogs, burgers, pizza, sandwiches, nachos, tortillas, burrito, muffins, donuts, donuts, Bagles, Tianquball Timbits, PitaPita, etc.;

4) Deep-fried noodles are suitable for cold physique with good gastrointestinal function. It is recommended to be once a week and not to be greedy;

Deep-fried dough sticks, pancakes, noodle nests, Huanxituo, fried glutinous rice cakes, French fries, pancakes, fried dumplings, fried dumplings, fried dumplings, etc.;

5) Fried noodles, noodles, cold noodles, etc. at room temperature are suitable for people with hot constitutions; for people with gastritis and stomach cold, minimize the spicy ingredients in the seasoning;

6) Hot food suitable for cold and cold constitutions. If you have a hot constitution, you can mix it with green tea, tartary buckwheat tea, chrysanthemum tea, honeysuckle tea, cassia tea, yogurt, green leafy vegetables, etc.; minimize the spicy ingredients in the seasoning;

7) Pasta: It is expressly stipulated that spaghetti must be made with 100% Durum Semolina high-quality wheat (Duran wheat) flour and boiled high-quality water, and no coloring and preservatives can be added regardless of manual or machine preparation; There are said to be thousands of types of noodles, such as Spaghetti, Anclle Hair, Bucatini, Fusilli, Vermicelli, and Lasagna ( Fettuccine, Lasagne, Linguine, etc., but the essence is the same, just the difference in processing shape; some differences are the addition of various vegetables, cheese and other ingredients, and the difference in sauce; The “Innovative Pasta (gluten-free pasta)” made from rice on the market is not the real pasta.

3, Flour selection skills

1) Look at the packaging: whether the sealing line has any traces of being disassembled and reused;

2) Look at the color: normal flour is usually milky white or light yellow, while the flour with whitening agent is snow white. You should choose flour with milky white or light yellow color, moderate particle size, and less gluten (wheat bran is the skin layer of wheat. Crushed wheat bran is bran star);

3) Smell: The flour without whitening agent has a very natural light scent of wheat. If there is a peculiar smell or musty smell, it means that the whitening agent has been added too much or the flour has exceeded the shelf life, or it has deteriorated due to external environmental pollution;

4) Look at the ingredient list: if it contains benzoyl peroxide or diluted benzoyl peroxide, it means that it contains a whitening agent; the food made from flour without whitening agent is dark yellow, not obvious white and shiny;

5) Look at the label description: In Europe and America, flour is divided into bleached and unbleached, bleached means bleached; unbleached means unbleached;

6) European and American flour ingredient classification: white flour-White; multigrain flour-Multi grain; whole wheat flour-Whole Wheat Flour; coarse corn flour-Corn Meal Flour; fine corn flour-Corn Tortillas; corn starch-Corn Starch Many); Glutinous Rice Flour-Glutinous Rice Flour; Sticky Rice Flour-Rice Flour.

4, The gluten of flour

 Generally speaking, more than 11.5% is high-gluten flour; less than 8.5% is low-gluten flour; in between is medium-gluten flour. People with basic health (no sub-health, no chronic diseases) can choose according to their own preferences and purpose of use, and there are no taboos (except for choosing flour without bleaching agents and additives); people with obesity, intestinal leakage, and eight highs ( High blood pressure, high blood sugar, high blood fat, high uric acid, high cholesterol, high insulin resistance, high homocysteine, high body fat rate), it is not recommended to choose any flour, once the basic health condition is restored (physical examination result shall prevail) , You can choose any flour, just reduce the serving size and frequency.

1) Bread flour:

Protein content: >11.5% The average value is about 13.5%, the protein content is high, the gluten is strong, and it is mainly used for making bread;

2) All Purpose Flour/Plain Flour:

Protein content: 8.5%-11.5% with an average value of 11%; the most widely used, such as western-style pasta, pizza, etc., Chinese-style such as buns, steamed buns, dumpling wrappers, etc.;

3) Low-gluten flour-Cake Flour:

Protein content: about 8.5%, weak in gluten, white in color, mainly used for making cakes and other soft pastries;

4) Gluten Free Flour:

The protein content is lower than low-gluten flour. Specially formulated products in Europe and the United States are suitable for low-gluten foods for people who are allergic to gluten, or due to health factors and weight loss. manufactured food);

5) Gluten Flour:

Gluten flour, or gluten: also known as wheat gluten, is a powdered product made by separating, extracting and drying the protein in wheat flour. It is mainly used for making gluten, or mixed with all-purpose flour in a certain proportion to become high-gluten flour. It can also be used as a binder to mix into meat products that need to be made. It is usually used in cake shops and food factories.

Three, other grinding powder

  1. Flour and starch for kitchen

Related links:

The difference between various flours and starches in the kitchen

Difference between high and low fiber & thick and thin fiber

  • Fans

There are mainly four kinds of most common fans: pea fans (flat), mung bean fans (cold), potato fans (flat) and sweet potato fans (warm); now some fans are mixed, and some are added with vegetables , And other starchy ingredients, such as pumpkin, carrot, yam and so on.

  • Jelly
  • White jelly: Mung beans, peas, rice and other raw materials are ground into soy flour, either single or mixed; the more famous white jelly with brown sugar and sweet-scented osmanthus; while sad jelly is mainly made of corn starch;
  • Black jelly: It is made from the roots and stems of fairy grass. The fairy grass is also called burning grass, jelly grass; it is rich in pectin and cellulose; some also add honey or milk;
  • Sticky rice flour, chestnut flour, and white sugar are usually added;
  • Difference: Tortoise paste is made from precious olecranon and Smilax glabra as raw materials, together with rehmannia glutinosa, dandelion, honeysuckle, chrysanthemum and other medicines. Guiling ointment has the effects of clearing heat and detoxification, nourishing yin and nourishing the kidney, eliminating acne, and moistening the intestines;
  • Liangpi: It is mostly made from the protein contained in raw materials (such as rice, wheat, beans), and its main components are water, protein and starch;
  • lotus root starch: A kind of food made from fresh lotus root through a series of processing. Lotus root is a kind of cold food, but lotus root flour is a kind of flat, neither cold nor hot. The lotus root powder processed by lotus root needs to be soaked, and then heated and boiled, it has the effect of warming the qi, invigorating the spleen and stomach, and the lotus root powder can be used for most people, and after processing, it tastes good It tastes very good, appetizing and digesting. It has a certain relief effect on loss of appetite and indigestion. Although the nutritional value of even powder is very high, we must brew it before eating. It is not allowed to eat more. Eat some lotus root flour.

Final words

In traditional nutrition, cereals can be broadly divided into three categories:

  1. Cereals: including rice (indica, japonica, rice), wheat (wheat, barley, oats, rye), corn, sorghum, millet, millet, yellow rice, buckwheat, etc.;
  2. Beans (shū): including soybeans, broad beans, peas, mung beans, adzuki beans, kidney beans, etc.;
  3. Potatoes: including sweet potatoes, also called sweet potatoes or sweet potatoes, potatoes, yams, taro, cassava, etc.

These real and fake rice noodles (some are not real grains) are basically flat or warm, and only a few are cold. In addition, people rarely consume these carbohydrates alone. Basically, they need to be matched with meat, poultry eggs, fish and shrimp, and various seasonings (ginger, onion and garlic are mild), so as long as you can guarantee 10- per day With 20 kinds of ingredients (or 20-30 kinds of ingredients per week), there will be no conflict between eating habits and human physique; if children and adolescents have a habit of partial eating, they need to be corrected from an early age so as not to affect their development or health.

The principle of choosing rice or noodles, in addition to those mentioned above, is mainly for people with sub-health and chronic diseases. Due to the accumulation of toxins and nutritional disorders, the gastrointestinal problems can not be digested well, and even after absorption, various digestive systems can be caused. problem. How to choose and how to resolve it? Please pay attention to the three-dimensional detox and immune repair courses and training.

*** Every article has been carefully written, edited and checked by Huizhou experts. Please trust the experts’ opinions and suggestions.If you have any questions, please email info@chelsea98.com ***

Chelsea98.com--Wise Week Million Dragon's Great Health Project Dr. Kyle Long, registered dietitian, registered health manager, from Smart Week Smart Financial Education Group-Sincere, clear and efficient personalized FAH financial quotient and health quotient education

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