谈谈过敏反应与过敏性疾病

— Dr. Long Chelsea98.com Huizhou Education_Millions of Dragons of Great Health

Allergies are very common in daily life. Some people are allergic to milk, eggs, nuts, seafood, some are allergic to metal jewelry, wood, paint, and plastics, and some are allergic to airborne dust, flowers, and plants. Insects or pollen allergies, some people are allergic to detergents, chemicals, vaccines or medicines, etc.; some move or emigrate, have varying degrees of allergies to the new living area, such as diarrhea, rhinitis, etc., some people call it Dissatisfied with water and soil. When allergies occur, they are prone to diseases such as eczema and dermatitis. In addition to causing skin itching, erythema, papules and wind masses, it can also affect the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, and nervous system in severe cases.

In the past 30 years, the frequency of food allergies has increased, especially in industrialized societies. For example, in the United Kingdom, the number of people allergic to peanuts increased fivefold between 1995 and 2016. According to a survey conducted by Royal College of London on 1,300 3-year-old children, there are 2.5% children who are allergic to peanuts. Australians have the highest rate of food allergies. According to a study, among 1-year-old children, 9% is allergic to eggs and 3% is allergic to peanuts. Generally, allergy rates in developing countries are relatively low. Moreover, allergies in urban areas are higher than in rural areas. The reasons for this are related to pollution, dietary changes, and reduced exposure to microorganisms. Because these affect how our immune mechanism responds. It is also worth noting that compared with the country of origin, some immigrants are more likely to have food allergies and asthma after arriving in a new country. This phenomenon further proves the importance of environmental factors.

The incidence of allergies is very high, and it is reported in the literature that about one-third of people have suffered from allergic diseases in their lifetime. According to statistics from Beijing, China, the incidence of allergies in the general population is about 15%. In some parts of the Pacific Ocean (USA and Canada), allergic diseases are even as high as 50%.

Since entering the 21st century, the disease has become one of the most common global diseases. Globally, about 250 million people have food allergies, 300 million people have asthma, 400 million people have rhinitis, and one-tenth of the total population has drug allergies, which is listed as a globalThe sixth major chronic disease. The World Health Organization has long listed allergic diseases as one of the key diseases for research and prevention in the 21st century. This article introduces you separately from the types and nature of allergies, common allergic diseases and how to prevent allergic reactions.

1, The internal and external factors that cause allergies, and the essence of allergies

Under normal circumstances, when foreign substances enter the human body, most of them face two fates. If they are recognized by the body as useful or harmless substances, these substances will live in harmony with the human body and will eventually be absorbed, utilized or naturally discharged. If these substances are recognized as harmful substances, the body's immune system will immediately react to drive them out or eliminate them. This is the protective role played by the immune response. Immune response (Immune response) is one of the important functions of the human defense system, but if this response exceeds the normal range, that is, when the immune system attacks harmless substances, this situation is called allergic reaction (Allergic reaction). Allergy is a kind of disease, because unprovoked attacks can also damage normal body tissues, and even the immune system sometimes attacks and destroys the body's own tissues, which is very detrimental to human health.

All in all, allergies are not psychopathic, but the function of the body's immune system is "perverted". Clinically, according to the classification principle proposed by Coombs and Gell in 1963, allergies are divided into type I (immediate type), type II (cytotoxic type); type III (immune complex type), type IV (delayed type) . Allergy is the main representative of type I allergies, which can be roughly divided into allergic reactions and allergic diseases in clinical practice. The former is a systemic syndrome in which the body reacts abnormally to allergens. The latter is that allergies affect certain organs and tissues, leading to certain diseases.

The causes of allergies can be roughly divided into external and internal causes.

(1) External cause

Certain substances can cause abnormal reactions in the immune system of some people after entering the human body. These substances are called "allergens (also known as allergens, Allergen)" and are the culprits of allergies. Allergens are mostly macromolecular substances, such as certain proteins or peptides. Common allergens (wheat, peanuts, soybeans, nuts, milk, eggs, fish and crustaceans, etc.) are caused by food allergies. Allergic diseases accounted for about 90% of the total number of allergies), inhalants (pollen, house dust, mites, etc.), microorganisms (molds, bacteria, etc.), insect toxins, drugs (such as penicillin, sulfonamides, etc.), heterologous serum and physical factors, etc. . The above substances can enter the body through ingestion, inhalation, contact and injection. Macromolecular substances are directly used as antigens, and small molecular substances (haptens) can combine with certain substances in the body to form new antigens (allergens). Allergens can cause body sensitization after entering the body for the first time, and allergic reactions occur when these substances enter the body again. Stimulate the abnormal activity of the patient's immune system, and ultimately cause a series of allergic injuries.

(2) Internal cause

Not all people are allergic. Under the same circumstances, some people are allergic and some are not allergic-this fact tells us that allergies need internal causes. The internal cause is the "Allergic Constitution" of some people. Allergic constitution refers to the immune system of a certain group of people with defects. Their immune system is different from that of ordinary people, so they are prone to "not distinguish between friends and enemies and attack without reason", which leads to the occurrence of allergies. Patients with allergic diseases are mostly hereditary. If both parents have allergic diseases, those whose offspring have 75% may develop allergic diseases. Among them, 50% occurs in the first 5 years after birth. With age, allergies The occurrence will gradually decrease.

In recent years, with the accelerating process of industrialization, urbanization, and globalization, people’s pace of life and way of life are constantly changing, the pressure of life and work is increasing, and the types and processing techniques of food are increasing, resulting in many non-allergic The population may gradually evolve into people with allergic physique, which makes the potential allergic population continue to expand. At the same time, with the improvement of technology and medical standards, many previously unrecognized allergies have also been revealed. This is the current occurrence and discovery of allergies. More and more reasons.

2, Common allergic diseases

(1) Urticaria, allergic rhinitis, anaphylactic shock, hay fever, allergic asthma, brain allergies, intestinal allergies, etc.;

(2) Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction of the human body to certain substances (called allergens). Once the allergen enters the body of a child with allergies, the immune system will treat the allergen as an invading substance and overreact. This reaction can occur within a few minutes to an hour after the child is exposed to the allergen; a systemic allergic reaction may cause the child's airway to become narrow or obstructed, making it difficult for the child to breathe, and may also cause a drop in blood pressure. If left untreated, these symptoms can cause death.

Patients with anaphylaxis may suddenly experience the following conditions:

Hives, skin redness, itching; swelling of eyes, lips, tongue or face; difficulty breathing, tight throat or difficulty swallowing; abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea; coughing; nasal congestion and/or runny nose, tears, sneezing Fainting, confusion, dizziness or dizziness; rapid heartbeat or irregular heartbeat; cold, clammy or sweaty skin; changes in voice.

3, How to prevent allergic reactions?

  1. Patients who are sensitive to allergens in the air,

Do not keep pets in your home. If you have one, do not allow pets to enter your child's room, and bathe your pet regularly; remove or remove carpets in your home, especially to ensure that there are no carpets in your child's room. The dust on the hard surface is much less than that of the carpet; if the home has a fixed carpet, it should be vacuumed at least once a week; reduce the relative humidity in the home; wash the bedding with hot water, which helps to reduce dust mites ; In the blooming season of plants, windows should be closed to reduce children's contact with outdoor pollen; use an air conditioning system with a fine particle filter; clean up items that accumulate dust in the home, including heavy curtains, or old furniture that has not been cleaned for a long time The home should be cleaned frequently, and the filter of the household heater should be replaced regularly according to the manufacturer’s recommendations; if the child is allergic to dust mites, the pillowcase and mattress cover should be stitched separately; the bathroom and other areas prone to mold should be kept clean and dry.

  • Patients who are allergic to certain foods, pay attention to:

Children must avoid all foods that can cause allergies; as they age, some children may no longer be allergic to certain foods, but other children may need to avoid certain foods for life; avoiding food allergens is not easy, many Children eat by mistake, causing allergic reactions; if your children have food allergies, you should teach them which foods to avoid and all the other names of these foods; you and your children should learn to read the product labels on the food packaging, and Ask about the ingredients in the dishes when eating out; you should also let your children understand why it is necessary to confirm whether there are allergens in the food ingredients; for all those who care for your children, you should inform your children about their allergies and let them know what your children must Avoid foods and drinks.

Final words

Paying attention to allergies, finding the causes and allergens that cause allergies, and preventing allergies are far from enough, because our lives are diverse, and allergens are often unavoidable. If rapid detection, find a solution, and make life move towards a colorful, healthy and happy direction, this is the ultimate goal of health management. Please continue to follow this series.

Attachment: 20Kinds of inhalation allergens:

1. Microorganisms (moulds): Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fumigatus, Candida albicans, Alternaria;

2. Pollen: bermudagrass, pasture, hogweed, wormwood, asteraceae plants;

3. Mites: house dust mites, dust mites, and non-clawed mites;

4. Drift cockroaches: cat dander, dog dander, chicken dander, duck dander, German cockroach, Asian cockroach;

5. Other: latex.

60Kind of food allergens:

1. Cereals: wheat, oats, corn, rice, buckwheat, malt;

2. Vegetables: tomato, carrot, potato, celery, melon, mushroom, spinach, cabbage, pumpkin, cucumber, cabbage (green broccoli), ginger, yam, taro;

3. Seafood: salmon, cod, crab, shrimp, peacock clam, tuna, lobster, oyster (oyster);

4. Fruits: kiwi (kiwi), orange, coconut, strawberry, apple, lemon, pineapple, cherry, grape, papaya, watermelon, cranberry;

5. Nuts: peanuts, soybeans, almonds, sesame, cocoa beans, cashews, vanilla beans;

6. Dairy products: milk, goat's milk, cheese, egg white, egg yolk;

7. Meat: pork, beef, chicken, lamb;

8. Spices: garlic, mustard;

9. Other: Yeast.

*** Every article has been carefully written, edited and checked by Huizhou experts. Please trust the experts’ opinions and suggestions.If you have any questions, please email info@chelsea98.com ***

Chelsea98.com--Wise Week Million Dragon's Great Health Project Dr. Kyle Long, registered dietitian, registered health manager, from Smart Week Smart Financial Education Group-Sincere, clear and efficient personalized FAH financial quotient and health quotient education

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